Génétique et Ecologie Evolutive

Thomas LENORMAND

altDirecteur de Recherche CNRS

CEFE
Campus du CNRS
1919, route de Mende
34293 Montpellier 5
Tél : +33/0 4 67 61 32 91
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@Th_Lenormand

My principal area of research is Evolutionary genetics and evolutionary ecology. I have a broad expertise in evolutionary biology, genetics and ecology.

I have been working on adaptation and mutation, local adaptation, evolution of genetic systems (sex, recombination, sex chromosomes), evolution of gene duplicates, speciation, genetic conflicts, dispersal, biotic interactions (parasites, microbiota), statistics and fitness measures. I have been working with many empirical systems (vertebrates, insects, crustaceans, fungi, plants, helminths, bacteria), in the lab and in the field.

Currently, my scientific activity rests on three axes: first I do theoretical work (theoretical population genetics, statistics, and bioinformatics development). I am particularly interested currently on the evolution of gene expression (on sex chromosomes or in asexuals). Second, I work on small crustaceans Artemia and Daphnia. I’m particularly interested currently on sex-asex transitions, biotic interactions and adaptation to temperature. Third, I do experimental evolution on E. coli. I'm particularly interested on testing fitness landscape models, adaptation to different doses of antibiotics, and coevolution of species coexisting by frequency dependence.

Research interests by keywords
adaptation, local adaptation, migration, speciation, (sex) chromosomes, clines, sex, parthenogenesis, meiosis, recombination, epistasis, dominance, mutations, resistance, duplications, modifiers, mating systems, sexual conflicts, parasites, microbiota.

XYmus alt popgen  alt
coli daphnia  alt silene

Brief CV

Research director CNRS (DR1)
HDR (2007)
Ph.D Evolutionary Biology (1998)

Radcliffe Fellow, Harvard Univ. (2017-2018)
ERC "starting grant" (2007)
Theodosius Dobzhansky Prize (Society for the Study of Evolution), 2000
Young Investigator Prize (American Society of Naturalists), 2000

ResearchGate, GoogleScholarAcademicTree


 

alt Editor 2012 - 2015
alt Associate editor 2005 - 2008
alt Associate editor 2004 - 2011
alt Associate editor 2003 - 2007

 


Interested to join the lab?

If you're interested by the research topics mentionned above, or related ones, do not hesitate to contact me to discuss possible internships, PhDs or postdocs.


Preprints

Molinier C, Lenormand T, Haag CR. 202X. No support for a meiosis suppressor in Daphnia pulex: Comparison of linkage maps reveals normal recombination in males of obligate parthenogenetic lineages. bioRxiv.

Rode NO, Jabbour-Zahab R, Boyer L, Flaven É, Hontoria F, Van Stappen G, Haag C, Lenormand T. 202X. The origin of asexual brine shrimps. bioRxiv. Am. Nat. in revision.

Pais-Costa AJ, Lievens EJ, Redón S, Sánchez MI, Jabbour-Zahab R, Joncour P, Van Hoa N, Van Stappen G, Lenormand T. 202X. Strong transgenerational effects but no genetic adaptation in zooplankton 24 years after an abrupt+ 10° C climate change. bioRxiv. Evolution Letters in revision.

Recent papers

Lenormand T, Roze D. 2022. Y recombination arrest and degeneration in the absence of sexual dimorphism. Science, in press.

Boyer L, R Zahab, M Mosna, C Haag, T Lenormand. 2021. Not so clonal asexuals: unraveling the secret sex life of Artemia parthenogenetica. Evolution Letters 5:164-174.

Bestová H, Segrestin J, von Schwartzenberg K, Škaloud P, Lenormand T, Violle C. 2021. Biological scaling in green algae: the role of cell size and geometry. Scientific Reports 11: 1-9.

Simion P, Narayan J, Houtain A, Derzelle A, Baudry L, Nicolas E, ... and Van Doninck K. 2021. Chromosome-level genome assembly reveals homologous chromosomes and recombination in asexual rotifer Adineta vaga. Science advances, 7: eabg4216.Lenormand T, F Fyon, E Sun, D Roze. 2020. Sex Chromosome Degeneration by Regulatory Evolution. Current Biology 30: 3001-3006.

Lenormand, T., Fyon, F., Sun, E., & Roze, D. 2020. Sex chromosome degeneration by regulatory evolution. Current Biology 30: 3001-3006.

Lievens EJP, Y Michalakis, T Lenormand. 2020. Trait-specific trade-offs prevent niche expansion in two parasites. Recommended by PCI Evol Biol. JEB 33:1704-1714.

Harmand N, V Federico, T Hindre, T Lenormand. 2019. Non-linear frequency-dependent selection promotes long-term coexistence between bacteria species. Ecology Letters 22, 1192-1202

Lievens EJP, Rode NO, Landes J, Segard A, Jabbour-Zahab R, Michalakis Y, Lenormand T. 2019. Long-term prevalence data reveals spillover dynamics in a multi-host (Artemia), multi-parasite (Microsporidia) community. International Journal for Parasitology, 49, 471-480.

 

Selected publications by topics

Adaptation and mutation effects


Bourguet, D., T. Lenormand, T. Guillemaud, V. Marcel, D. Fournier, and M. Raymond. 1997. Variation of dominance of newly arisen adaptive genes. Genetics 147:1225-1234.

Chevin L.-M., G. Martin, T. Lenormand. 2010. Fisher’s model and the genomics of adaptation: restricted pleiotropy, heterogeneous mutation and parallel evolution. Evolution 64: 3213-3231 PDF

Gallet R., Latour Y., Bradley H., and T. Lenormand. 2014. The dynamics of niche evolution upon abrupt environmental change. Evolution 68:1257-1269

Gallet R, Violle C, Fromin N, Jabbour-Zahab R, Enquist B, Lenormand T. 2017. The evolution of bacterial cell size: the internal diffusion-constraint hypothesis. ISME J. 11:1559-156

Harmand N, Gallet R, Jabbour-Zahab R, Martin G, Lenormand T. 2016. Fisher’s geometrical model and the mutational patterns of antibiotic resistance across dose gradients. Evolution 71:23-37.

Harmand N, Gallet R, Martin G, Lenormand T. 2018. Evolution of bacteria specialization along an antibiotic dose gradient.Evol.Let. in press.

Jasmin J.-N., Lenormand T. 2016. Accelerating mutational load is not due to synergistic epistasis or mutator alleles in mutation accumulation lines of yeast. Genetics DOI 115.182774

Labbé, P., Sidos, N., Raymond, M., and Lenormand, T., 2009. Resistance Gene Replacement in the Mosquito Culex Pipiens: Fitness Estimation from Long Term Cline Series. Genetics 182:303-312 PDF

Lenormand, T., D. Roze, F. Rousset. 2009. Stochasticity in evolution. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 24: 157-165. PDF

Lenormand T, Chevin LMC, Bataillon T. 2016. Parallel evolution : what does it (not) tell us and why is it (still) interesting? [Book chapter, in Chance in Evolution Ramsey G & C Pence Eds, Univ. Chicago Press]. 

Lenormand, Nougué O, Jabbour-Zahab R, Arnaud F, Dezileau L, Chevin L.-M and Sánchez M. 2017 Resurrection Ecology in Artemia. Evol Appl. 11:76-87

Lenormand T, Harmand N, Gallet R. Cost of resistance: an unreasonably expensive concept. bioRxiv.

Manna F., Martin G., and T. Lenormand. 2011. Fitness landscape: an alternative theory for the dominance of mutations. Genetics 189:923-937. PDF.

Manna F., Gallet R., Martin G., and T. Lenormand. 2012. The high throughput yeast deletion fitness data and the theories of dominance. JEB, 25:892-903. PDF.

Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2006. A general multivariate extension of Fisher's geometrical model and the distribution of mutation fitness effects across species. Evolution 60:893-907. Awarded Fisher Prize 2007, Best PhD paper published in Evolution in 2006. PDF

Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2006. The fitness effect of mutations in stressful environments: a survey in the light of fitness landscape models. Evolution 60:2413-2427. PDF

Martin, G., S.F. Elena and T. Lenormand. 2007. Distributions of epistasis in microbes fit predictions from a fitness landscape model. Nature Genetics 39:555-560. PDF

Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2008. The distribution of beneficial and fixed mutation fitness effects close to an optimum. Genetics. 179: 907-916. PDF

Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2015. The fitness effect of mutations across environments: Fisher's geometric model with multiple optima. Evolution 69:1433-1447

Nougué O, Svendsen N, Zahab R, Lenormand T, Chevin LM. 2016. The ontogeny of tolerance curves : habitat quality versus acclimation in a stressful environment. J. Anim. Ecol. Doi 10.1111/1365-2656.12572.

Local adaptation


Alberto F., S. N. Aitken, R. Alía, S. C. González-Martínez, H. Hänninen, A. Kremer, F. Lefèvre, T. Lenormand, S. Yeaman, R. Whetten, O. Savolainen. 2013. Potential for evolutionary responses to climate change - evidence from tree populations. Global Change Biology doi: 10.1111/gcb.12181.

Debarre F., Lenormand, T. and Gandon S. Evolutionary epidemiology of drug-resistance in space. 2009. PLoS Comp. Biol. 5:e1000337. PDF

Debarre F.,and T. Lenormand. 2011.Distance-limited dispersal promotes coexistence at habitat boundaries: reconsidering the competitive exclusion principle. Ecology Letters, 14: 260-266 PDF

Epinat, G., and T. Lenormand. 2009. The evolution of assortative mating and selfing with in- and outbreeding depression. Evolution. 63: 2047-2060. PDF

Gallet R, Latour Y, Hughes B S, Lenormand T. 2014. The dynamics of niche evolution upon abrupt environmental change. Evolution 68: 1257-1269

Guillemaud, T., T. Lenormand, D. Bourguet, C. Chevillon, N. Pasteur, and M. Raymond. 1998. Evolution of resistance in Culex pipiens: Allele replacement and changing environment. Evolution 52:443-453.

Labbe, P., T. Lenormand, and M. Raymond. 2005. On the worldwide spread of an insecticide resistance gene: a role for local selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 18:1471-1484. PDF

Lenormand, T. 2002. Gene flow and the limits to natural selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17:183-189. PDF

Lenormand, T., D. Bourguet, T. Guillemaud, and M. Raymond. 1999. Tracking the evolution of insecticide resistance in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Nature 400:861-864. PDF

Lenormand, T., and M. Raymond. 1998. Resistance management: the stable zone strategy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 265:1985-1990. PDF

Lenormand, T., and M. Raymond. 2000. Analysis of clines with variable selection and variable migration. American Naturalist 155:70-82. PDF

Milesi P, Lenormand T., Lagneau C, Weill M, Labbé P. 2016. Relating Fitness to Long-term Environmental Variations in natura. Molecular Ecoloy 25:5483-5499.

Gene duplication evolution


Labbe, P., A. Berthomieu, C. Berticat, H. Alout, M. Raymond, T. Lenormand, and M. Weill. 2007. Independent duplications of the acetylcholinesterase gene conferring insecticide resistance in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24:1056-1067. PDF

Lenormand, T., T. Guillemaud, D. Bourguet, and M. Raymond. 1998. Appearance and sweep of a gene duplication: Adaptive response and potential for new functions in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Evolution 52:1705-1712. PDF

Labbé P., Milesi P., Yébakima A., Weill M., and T. Lenormand. 2014. Gene dosage effects on fitness in recent adaptive duplications : ace-1 in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Evolution 68: 2092-2101

Labbe, P., C. Berticat, A. Berthomieu, S. Unal, C. Bernard, M. Weill and T. Lenormand. 2007. Forty years of erratic insecticide resistance evolution in the mosquito Culex pipiens. PLoS Genetics, 3:e205. PDF

Milesi P, Weill M, Lenormand T., Labbé P. 2017. Heterogeneous gene duplications can be adaptive because they permanently associate overdominant alleles. Evolution Letters, in press

Sex, recombination, life cycles


Fyon F, Lenormand T. 2018. Cis-regulator runaway and divergence in asexuals. Evolution 10.1111/evo.13424

Haag C, Theodosiou L, Zahab R, Lenormand T. 2017. Low recombination rates in sexual species and sex-asex transitions Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B. DOI: 10.1098/rstb. 2016-0461

Lenormand T, Engelstädter J, Johnston SE, Wijnker E, Haag CR. 2016. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B, Doi 10.1098/rstb.2016.0001. also here on BiorXiv

Lenormand, T. 2003. The evolution of sex dimorphism in recombination. Genetics 163:811-822. PDF

Lenormand, T., and S. P. Otto. 2000. The evolution of recombination in a heterogeneous environment. Genetics 156:423-438. PDF

Lenormand, T., and J. Dutheil. 2005. Recombination difference between sexes: A role for haploid selection. PLoS Biology 3:396-403. PDF

Lenormand T, Roze D, Cheptou P-O, Maurice S. 2010. L'évolution du sexe: un carrefour pour la biologie évolutive. in Biologie évolutive. M. Raymond, F. Thomas, T. Lefèvre, Eds. DeBoeck.
Everything you ever wanted to know about sex, but in French

Lievens EJP, Henriques GJB, Michalakis Y, Lenormand T. 2016. Maladaptive sex ratio adjustment in the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Curr Biol. 26:1463–1467

Martin, G., S. P. Otto, and T. Lenormand. 2006. Selection for recombination in structured populations. Genetics 172:593-609. PDF

Mollion M, Ehlers BK, Figuet E, Santoni S, Lenormand T, Maurice S, Galtier N, Bataillon T. 2017. Patterns of genome-wide nucleotide diversity in the gynodioecious plant Thymus vulgaris are compatible with recent sweeps of cytoplasmic genes. Genome biology and evolution 10:239-248

Nougué O, Flaven E, Jabbour-Zahab R, Rode N O, Dubois M-P, Lenormand T. 2015. Characterization of nine new polymorphic microsatellite markers in Artemia parthenogenetica. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 58, 59-63

Nougué O, Rode NO, Jabbour Zahab R, Ségard A, Chevin LMC, Haag C, Lenormand T. 2015. Automixis in Artemia: solving a century old controversy. J. Evol. Biol. 28:2337-2348

Otto, S. P., and T. Lenormand. 2002. Resolving the paradox of sex and recombination. Nature Reviews Genetics 3:252-261. PDF

Rescan M, Lenormand T, Roze D. 2016. Interaction between genetic and ecological effects on the evolution of life cycles. American Naturalist 187: 19-34

Roze, D., and T. Lenormand. 2005. Self-fertilization and the evolution of recombination. Genetics 170:841-857. PDF

Henry, P. Y., L. Vimond, T. Lenormand, and P. Jarne. 2006. Is delayed selfing adjusted to chemical cues of density in the freshwater snail Physa acuta? Oikos 112:448-455. PDF

Svendsen N, Reisser CMO, Dukić M, Thuillier V, Ségard A, Liautard-Haag C, Fasel D, Hürlimann E, Lenormand T, Galimov Y and Haag CR. 2015. Uncovering Cryptic Asexuality in Daphnia magna by RAD-Sequencing. Genetics 201:1143-1155

Speciation


Bierne, N., T. Lenormand, F. Bonhomme, and P. David. 2002. Deleterious mutations in a hybrid zone: can mutational load decrease the barrier to gene flow? Genetical Research 80:197-204. PDF

Chevin, L.-M., Decorzent G., T. Lenormand. 2014. Niche dimensionality and the genetics of ecological speciation. Evolution 68:1244-1256

Fel-Clair, F., J. Catalan, T. Lenormand, and J. Britton-Davidian. 1998. Centromeric incompatibilities in the hybrid zone between house mouse subspecies from Denmark: Evidence from patterns of NOR activity. Evolution 52:592-603.

Fel-Clair, F., T. Lenormand, J. Catalan, J. Grobert, A. Orth, P. Boursot, M. C. Viroux, and J. BrittonDavidian. 1996. Genomic incompatibilities in the hybrid zone between house mice in Denmark: Evidence from steep and non-coincident chromosomal clines for Robertsonian fusions. Genetical Research 67:123-134.

Ganem, G, C. Litel, and T. Lenormand. 2008. Variation in mate preference across a house mouse hybrid zone. Heredity. 6:594-601 PDF

Gay, L., P. Crochet, D. Bell, and T. Lenormand. 2008. Comparing genetic and phenotypic clines in hybrid zones: a window on tension zone models. Evolution 62: 2789-2806 PDF

Lenormand T. 2012. From local adaptation to speciation: specialization and reinforcement. International Journal of Ecology. Ecological speciation (special issue) article ID 508458. PDF

Lenormand, T., F. FelClair, K. Manolakou, P. Alibert, and J. BrittonDavidian. 1997. Chromosomal transmission bias in laboratory hybrids between wild strains of the two European subspecies of house mice. Genetics 147:1279-1287. PDF

Dispersal


Billiard, S., and T. Lenormand. 2005. Evolution of migration under kin selection and local adaptation. Evolution 59:13-23. PDF

Lenormand, T., T. Guillemaud, D. Bourguet, and M. Raymond. 1998. Evaluating gene flow using selected markers: A case study. Genetics 149:1383-1392. PDF

Rieux A, Lenormand T., Carlier J., de Lapeyre de Bellaire L., Ravigne V. 2013 Using neutral cline decay to estimate contemporary dispersal: a generic tool and its application to a major crop pathogen. Ecology Letters 16 :721-730

Genetic conflicts


Autran D, Baroux C, Raissig MT, Lenormand T, Wittig M, Grob S, Steimer A, Barann M, Klostermeir UC, Leblanc O, Vielle-Calzada JP, Rosenstiel P, Grimanelli D, Grossniklaus U. 2011. Maternal epigenetic pathways control parental contributions to Arabidopsisearly embryogenesis. Cell 145: 707-719. PDF

Cailleau A., P.-O. Cheptou, T. Lenormand. 2010. Ploidy and the evolution of endosperm of flowering plants. Genetics 184:439-453. PDF

Cailleau A, Grimanelli D, Cheptou P-O, Lenormand T. 2018. Dividing a maternal pie among half-sibs: genetic conflicts and the control of resource allocation to seeds in maize. Am. Nat. in press.

Fyon F., Cailleau A., Lenormand T. 2015. Enhancer runaway and the Evolution of diploid gene expression. PLoS Genet. DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005665.

Rode N., Charmantier A., Lenormand T. 2011. Male-female coevolution in the wild : evidence from a time series inArtemia franciscana. Evolution 65:2881-2892. PDF
On the web See a great summary by Carl Zimmer
here or in Wired here.

Biotic interactions


Ehlers B., David P., Damgaard C.F., Lenormand T. 2016. Competitor relatedness, indirect soil effects, and plant co-existence. Journal of Ecology 104: 1134-1135

Gallet, R., T. Lenormand and I.-N. Wang, 2012 Phenotypic stochasticity prevents lytic bacteriophage population from extinction during bacterial stationary phase. Evolution 66: 3485-3494. PDF

Lievens EJP, Rode NO, Landes J, Segard A, Jabbour-Zahab R, Michalakis Y, Lenormand T. 2018. Long-term prevalence data reveals spillover dynamics in a multi-host (Artemia), multi-parasite (Microsporidia) community. bioRxiv 248542.

Lievens EJP, Perreau JMA, Agnew P, Michalakis Y, Lenormand T. 2018. Decomposing parasite fitness in a two-host, two-parasite system reveals the underpinnings of parasite specialization. bioRxiv 256974.

Nougué O, Gallet R, Chevin LMC, Lenormand T. 2015. Niche Limits of Symbiotic Gut Microbiota Constrain the Salinity Tolerance of Brine Shrimp. American Naturalist 186:390-403
Microbiota impact the niche and an extended definition of realized niches

Rode N.O., Lievens EJP, Flaven E., Segard A., Jabbour-Zahab R., Sanchez M, Lenormand T. 2013. Why join groups? Lessons from parasite-manipulated Artemia. Ecology Letters 16:493-501. PDF
On the web:
Parasites Make Their Hosts Sociable So They Get Eaten. Ed Yong's National Geographic Blog

Rode N.O., Landes J., Lievens E.J.P., Flaven E., Segard A., Jabbour-Zahab R., Michalakis Y., Agnew P., Vivares C., Lenormand T. 2013. Cytological, molecular and life cycle characterization of Anostracospora rigaudi n. g., n. sp. and Enterocytospora artemiae n. g., n. sp., two new microsporidian parasites infecting gut tissues of the brine shrimp Artemia. Parasitology 140:1168-1185

Sánchez M.I., N.O. Rode, E. Flaven, S. Redón, F. Amat, G.P. Vasileva, T. Lenormand. 2012. Differential susceptibility to parasites of invasive and native species of Artemia living in sympatry: consequences for the invasion ofA. franciscana in the Mediterranean Region. Biological Invasion, 14:1819-1829. PDF

Sanchez M., Pons I., Martinez-Haro M., Taggart M.A., Lenormand T., Green A. 2016. When parasites are good for health: cestode parasitism increases resistance to arsenic in brine shrimps. PLoS Pathogens DOI e1005459

Vasileva G.P., Redon S., Amat F., Nikolov P.N., Sanchez M., Lenormand T., Georgiev B.B. 2009 Records of cysticercoids of Fimbriarioides tadornae (Maksimova, 1976) and Branchiopodataenia gvozdevi (Maksimova, 1988) (Cyclophyllidea, Hymenolepididae) from brine shrimps at the Mediterraneancoasts of Spain and France, with a key to cestodes from Artemia spp. from the Western Mediterranean. Acta Parasitologica 54: 143-150. PDF

Fitness


Gallet R., Cooper T., Elena S.F., T. Lenormand. 2012. Measuring selection coefficients below 10-3 : method, questions and prospects. Genetics, 190:175-186. PDF
Over 150 millions phenotypes scored, one of the most precise measure of selection ever made and the questions it raises

Gimenez O., R. Covas, C. Brown, M. Anderson, M. Bomberger Brown, and T. Lenormand. 2006. Nonparametric estimation of natural selection on a quantitative trait using capture-mark-recapture data. Evolution 60:460-466. PDF

Gimenez O., Gregoire A., Lenormand T. 2009. Estimating and visualizing fitness surfaces using mark-recapture data. Evolution. 63: 3097-3105.

Lenormand T, Rode NO, Chevin LMC, Rousset F. 2016. Valeur sélective: définitions, enjeux et mesures. in Biologie évolutive 2nd edition. M. Raymond, F. Thomas, T. Lefèvre, Eds. DeBoeck.
Everything you ever wanted to know about fitness, but in French

 


 

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