• Aurélie COULON


    Associate Professor in spatial ecology at the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle                                                                                                                                                        

    My research focuses on movement ecology: I study the factors influencing animal movements (especially dispersal) and gene flow, with a particular emphasis on landscape composition and structure. I also study how human-triggered landscape modifications like fragmentation affect animal movements; and the consequences on population functioning and structure. My research is hence tightly linked to the management/conservation of populations, and to landscape management (e.g. connectivity restoration, french Trame Verte et Bleue policy).

  • Bertrand Fouks

    Postdoctoral Research Associate

    Work Experiences

    November 2023 - present: Postdoctoral position part of PHENOVIGOUR project (ERC funding awarded to François Vasseur), investigating the impact of genome size variation on functional traits in  Arabidopsis thaliana populations, as well as the drivers of this genome size vairation.

    May 2021 - April 2023: MSCA fellow on the funded project: "How Transposable Elements drive the Emergence of Phenotypic Innovations (TEEPI)". Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, University of Münster

    August 2020 - April 2021: Postdoctoral position on how sociality has arisen in insects, comparative genomics of Blattodea insect order. Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, University of Münster

    May 2018 – May 2020: Visiting Researcher in the Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo

    October 2014 – October 2015: Postdoctoral position on genomic analyses in the genus Apis at Social Insect laboratory of Dr. Olav Rueppell, the University of North Carolina at Greensboro , USA. Project funded by NIH


    • 2010-2014: PhD entitled “Behavioural and social immunity in an eusocial insect, the bumblebee Bombus terrestris”, in the Institute for Biology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany. Disputation date: 15/05/2014
    • 2008-2009: MSc (2nd year) in Insect Sciences (University Francois Rabelais Tours, France)
    • 2006-2007: MSc (1st year) in Ethology (University of Paris 13, France)
    • 2002-2006: BSc in Evolutionary Biology (University of Poitiers, France)

    Research Interests

    • Genome Evolution
    • Transposable Elements
    • Evolution of Sociality
    • Evolution of Recombination
    • Evolutionary Ecology of Plant-Pollinator interactions
    • Behavioural Immunity


    • Berger
    • Ariza, M., Fouks, B., Mauvisseau, Q., Halvorsen, R., Greve Alsos, I., &de Boer, H.J. (2022). Plant biodiversity assessment through soil eDNA reflects temporal and local diversity. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.13865.
    • Fouks, B., Brand, P., Nguyen, H. N., Herman, J., Camara, F., Ence, D.,... & Rueppell, O. (2021). The genomic basis of evolutionary differentiation among honey bees. Genome Research, gr-272310.
    • Fouks B, Wagoner KM (2019). Pollinator Parasites and the Evolution of Floral Traits. Ecology & Evolution, 9(11), 6722-6737.
    • Yousefi B, Fouks B (2019). The presence of a larval honey bee parasite, Ascosphaera apis, on flowers reduces pollinator visitation to several plant species. Acta Oecologica, 96: 49-55.
    • Fouks B, Robb EG, Lattorff HMG (2019). Role of Conspecifics on behavioural Avoidance of Contaminated Flowers by Bumblebees. Current Zoology, 65(4), 447-455.
    • Rueppell O, Kuster R, Miller K, Fouks B, Collazo J, Rubio Correa S, Phaincharoen M, Tingek S, Koeniger N (2016). A New Metazoan Recombination Rate Record and Consistently High Recombination Rates in the Honey Bee Genus Apis Accompanied by Frequent Inversions but Not Translocations. Genome Biology and Evolution, 8(12): 3653-3660.
    • Fouks B, Lattorff HMG (2016). Contrasting evolutionary rates between social and parasitic bumblebees for three social effect genes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 4:64.
    • Sadd BM, Barribeau SM, Bloch G, … , Fouks B, … , Worley KC (2015). The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization. Genome Biology, 16: 76.
    • Larsen J, Fouks B, Bos N, d’Ettorre P, Nehring V (2014). Variation in nestmate recognition ability among polymorphic leaf-cutting ant workers. Journal of Insect Physiology, 70: 59-66.
    • Fouks B, Lattorff HMG (2014). Comparison of two molecular diagnostic tools for the quantification of Crithidia bombi, a parasite of bumblebees. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 150:191-197.
    • Fouks B, Lattorff HMG (2013). Social scent marks do not improve avoidance of parasites in foraging bumblebees. Journal of Experimental Biology, 216: 285-291.
    • Fouks B, Lattorff HMG (2011). Recognition and Avoidance of Contaminated Flowers by Foraging Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). PLoS ONE, 6: e26328.
    • Fouks B, d'Ettorre P, Nehring V (2011). Brood adoption in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior: adaptation or recognition noise? Insectes Sociaux, 58: 479-485.


  • Christoph HAAG

    Chargé de Recherche C Haag2

    Evolutionary genetics and genomics.


    My main current researchinterests include evolution in spatially structured populations, evolution of ageing, and evolution of reproductive modes. I combine experiments with the analysis of NGS data. My main empirical study systems are the small crustaceans Daphnia and Artemia.



  • Claudine MONTGELARD

    Maitre de Conférences (EPHE)

    Campus du CNRS
    1919, route de Mende
    34293 Montpellier 5

     tél : 33 (0)4 67 61 33 04
     fax: 33 (0)4 67 41 21 38

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    Mes thèmes de recherche concernent la phylogénie, la phylogéographie et l'évolution moléculaire à partir de l'analyse des séquences de gènes mitochondriaux et nucléaires. L’objectif est de répondre, à l’aide de l’outil moléculaire, à des questions de biodiversité et systématique évolutive à l’échelle des vertébrés (mammifères, amphibiens et reptiles). Je m’intéresse aussi à l’échelle temporelle (datations moléculaires) des différents niveaux de diversifications ce qui permet de confronter les inférences moléculaires avec les données morphologiques, paléontologiques et biogéographiques.


    EDT2016 small

    Maitre de Conférences EPHE - PSL

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    Google scholar ; ResearchGate ; ORCID


    Research disciplines: Population genomics – Phylogeny – Biodiversity discovery

    Techniques used: Whole Genome resequencing – ddRAD  – eDNA metabarcoding – Barcoding

    Research interests

    Dr Erwan Delrieu-Trottin joined the CEFE in 2021 as an Associate Professor from Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. His research focuses on the origin and dynamic of biodiversity, working at the scale of species and populations. He works on the spatial and temporal dynamics of biodiversity by relying on traditional and next generation sequencing technologies. In the context of an unprecedented biodiversity crisis, the use of the molecular tool makes it possible to identify essential areas of conservation and to assess populations connectivity and the determinants of species assemblages. (e.g. environment, connectivity). He is particularly interested in tropical freshwater and marine fishes, which led him to work on projects related to different biodiversity hotspots, in the South Pacific (French Polynesia, Easter Island), South America, Indonesia and Africa.


    since 2021       Associate Professor EPHE, CEFE, France

    2018-2021       Post-Doc, ISEM, Uni. Montpellier, France

    2016-2018       Post-Doc, Uni. Austral de Chile, Chile

    2015                Post-Doc, MNHN, France

    2014                Post-Doc, CRIOBE and Smithsonian Museum, USA

    2009-2013       PhD, CRIOBE, UPMC, France


    Mon travail de recherche porte sur la description de la biodiversité, sur la compréhension des mécanismes à l’origine de cette biodiversité et sur son maintien au cours du temps à l’échelle des espèces et des populations. Je travaille donc sur la dynamique spatiale et temporelle de la biodiversité en m’appuyant sur des technologies de séquençage traditionnel (génétique) et de nouvelle génération (génomique & ADN environnemental). Dans le cadre d’une crise sans précédent de la biodiversité, l’utilisation de l’outil moléculaire permet d’identifier des zones essentielles de conservation et d’évaluer la connectivité des populations et les déterminants des assemblages des espèces (e.g. environnement, connectivité). Je m’intéresse particulièrement aux poissons tropicaux, d’eau douce et marins, ce qui m’a amené à travailler sur des projets portant sur différents hotspots de biodiversité, du Pacifique Sud (Polynésie française, ile de Pâques), d’Amérique du Sud, d’Indonésie et d’Afrique.

    Mots clé : Biodiversité – Génomique des populations – Phylogénie – Conservation – Poissons

  • Franck RICHARD

    F Richard

    Professeur des Universités, Université de Montpellier


    Courriel : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


  • Jeremy LARROQUE



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    Projet: effets du paysage sur la diversité génétique et les flux de gènes chez le Lièvre variable, le Lièvre d’Europe et le Lagopède alpin, dans les Alpes françaises.



  • Lise ROY

    Roy Lise small

    Maître de Conférences, Université Paul Valéry Montpellier III


    Intéressée par les dynamiques de populations d’arthropodes en agroécosystèmes, j’étudie (1) les effets de l’interférence entre activités agricoles et deux grandes forces évolutives sur les arthropodes - la migration et la sélection naturelle –, (2) les interactions biotiques impliquant des arthropodes bioagresseurs et auxiliaires potentiels. Je dirige ces travaux suivant une approche transdisciplinaire à l'interface entre recherche fondamentale et recherche opérationnelle.


    I am interested in the dynamics of arthropod populations in agroecosystems and am studying (1) the effects of interference between farming activities and two major evolutionary forces on arthropods - migration and natural selection - and (2) biotic interactions involving arthropod pests and potential beneficials. I lead this work following a transdisciplinary approach at the interface between fundamental and operational research.


    Courriel : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

  • Luis-Miguel CHEVIN

    LMC portraitDirecteur de Recherche CNRS


    I am interested in adaptive evolution in response to changing environments: its ecological causes, phenotypic and genetic underpinnings, and demographic consequences. 


  • Mathieu JORON

    Directeur de Recherche / Senior scientist

    I study the evolution of adaptive diversity, using colour patterns in butterflies as a model. In my group, we integrate many different approaches, including ecology, genetics, and modelling, to try and untangle how multiple factors influence the evolution and maintenance of diversity and polymorphisms.

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  • Patrice DAVID

    Directeur de recherche ( DR1) CNRS

    tel : +33 (0)4 67 61 32 28

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    Chercheur en Ecologie Evolutive, j'étudie l'évolution des systèmes de reproduction (sélection sexuelle, hermaphrodisme, autofécondation), et  la dynamique des communautés (bio-invasions, coexistence d'espèces) par des approches expérimentales, moléculaires, de terrain, et théoriques. J'enseigne la Génétique Quantitative à l'Université.


     I am an evolutionary biologist. I study the evolution of mating systems (sexual selection, hermaphroditism, self-fertilization) as well as community eco-evolutionary dynamics (bio-invasions, species coexistence) through experimental, molecular, field, and theoretical approaches. I teach Quantitative Genetics.


  • Pierre-Edouard GUERIN

    pierre edouard guerin photo webIngénieur d'étude, bioinformaticien (2017 - 2021)

    Diplômé du master professionnel double compétence informatique et biologie de l’Université Paris Diderot, j'apporte mes compétences en programmation pour de nombreux projets scientifiques en collaboration avec des équipes de recherche.

    Campus du CNRS
    1919, route de Mende
    34293 Montpellier 5

    • mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
    • website:https://guerinpe.com/


  • Simon LACOMBE

    PhD candidate – Université de Montpellier



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    PHD project:What are the drivers of European otter recolonization in France? Making the best of non-invasive sampling with statistical ecology.


    Supervisors: Olivier Gimenez (CEFE-CNRS), Sébastien Devillard (LBBE)



    Project outline

    The aim of my PhD is to study the recolonization of the European otter (Lutra lutra), which has been taking place in France for over a decade. My research mostly focuses on the spatial dimension of recolonization with three main objectives.

    First, I am building distribution models that integrate both protocol-based data from a national monitoring plan and opportunistic data to map the species’ range expansion. I will then investigate how this expansion is favoured or hindered by habitat characteristics and landscape connectivity.

    In the same time, I am studying how to include alternative sampling strategies like environment DNA in the monitoring plan for this species, using a case study in several catchments near Montpellier.

    Finally, using sequencing data from scats collected in several areas, I am using capture-recapture methods to compare the socio-spatial organization of otters – home range size, sex-ratio, individual turnover – in their core range and in the colonisation front.



    • AMÉLINEAU, Françoise, TARROUX, Arnaud, LACOMBE, Simon, et al. Multi‐colony tracking of two pelagic seabirds with contrasting flight capability illustrates how windscapes shape migratory movements at an ocean‐basin scale. Ecography, 2023, p. e06496.
    • LACOMBE, Simon, IMS, Rolf, YOCCOZ, Nigel, et al.Effects of resource availability and interspecific interactions on Arctic and red foxes' winter use of ungulate carrion in the Fennoscandian low-Arctic tundra. In preprint.



  • Stéphanie MANEL

    Stephanie MANEL

    Directrice d'Etudes EPHE - PSL

    My main field of research is landscape genetics.

    Campus du CNRS
    1919, route de Mende
    34293 Montpellier cedex 5

    Tel. : +33(0)4 67 61 32 35

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    Keywords : Landscape genetics - Landscape connectivity - Adaptive genetic diversity - Local adaptation - Gene flow 

    Website: https://sites.google.com/site/stephaniemanel/home

  • Sylvain GANDON

    Founder of the team "Ecologie et Epidémiologie Evolutive"

    EVOLEPID website


    Google Scholar

    (Since 2010)  Director of research at CNRS - CEFE, Montpellier, France

    (2002 - 2010) Permanent researcher at CNRS
    (2000-2001) Wellcome Trust fellow, Edinburgh University, UK 

    (2007) Habilitation to Direct Research (HDR) - Montpellier University
    (2000) PhD in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology - Paris VI University
    (1995) Master in Ecology - Paris VI University 

    (2018)Visiting Professorship, Leverhulme Trust, Oxford, UK
    (2018-2022) ANR grant "EVOMALWILD"
    (2017-2018) CNRS PEPS MPI "Stochastic Evolutionary Epidemiology"
    (2010-2014) ERC Starting Grant "EVOLEPID"
    (2008-2011) ANR Young Investigator grant
    (2002) Young Investigator Prize - American Society of Naturalists
    (2000-2001) Wellcome Trust fellowship in mathematical epidemiology, Edinburgh University, UK

    (2011-2014)  Associate Editor for Proceedings of the Royal Society London B
    (2009-2011)  Associate Editor for Evolution

    CEFE - UMR 5175
    1919, route de Mende
    34293 Montpellier 5
    Tél : +33/0 4 67 61 33 18
    Fax : +33/0 4 67 61 33 36


  • Thomas LENORMAND

    altDirecteur de Recherche CNRS

    Campus du CNRS
    1919, route de Mende
    34293 Montpellier 5
    Tél : +33/0 4 67 61 32 91
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    My principal area of research is Evolutionary genetics and evolutionary ecology. I have a broad expertise in evolutionary biology, genetics and ecology.

    I have been working on adaptation and mutation, local adaptation, evolution of genetic systems (sex, recombination, sex chromosomes), evolution of gene duplicates, speciation, genetic conflicts, dispersal, biotic interactions (parasites, microbiota), statistics and fitness measures. I have been working with many empirical systems (vertebrates, insects, crustaceans, fungi, plants, helminths, bacteria), in the lab and in the field.

    Currently, my scientific activity rests on three axes: first I do theoretical work (theoretical population genetics, statistics, and bioinformatics development). I am particularly interested currently on the evolution of gene expression (on sex chromosomes or in asexuals). Second, I work on small crustaceans Artemia and Daphnia. I’m particularly interested currently on sex-asex transitions, biotic interactions and adaptation to temperature. Third, I do experimental evolution on E. coli. I'm particularly interested on testing fitness landscape models, adaptation to different doses of antibiotics, and coevolution of species coexisting by frequency dependence.

    Research interests by keywords
    adaptation, local adaptation, migration, speciation, (sex) chromosomes, clines, sex, parthenogenesis, meiosis, recombination, epistasis, dominance, mutations, resistance, duplications, modifiers, mating systems, sexual conflicts, parasites, microbiota.

    XYmus alt popgen  alt
    coli daphnia  alt silene

    Brief CV

    Deputy director CEFE

    Research director CNRS (DR1)
    HDR (2007)
    Ph.D Evolutionary Biology (1998)

    ERC "advanced grant" (2023)
    Radcliffe Fellow, Harvard Univ. (2017-2018)
    ERC "starting grant" (2007)
    Theodosius Dobzhansky Prize (Society for the Study of Evolution), 2000
    Young Investigator Prize (American Society of Naturalists), 2000

    ResearchGate, GoogleScholarAcademicTree


    alt Editor2012 - 2015
    alt Associate editor2005 - 2008
    alt Associate editor2004 - 2011

    Associate editor2003 - 2007

    genetics Associate editor2023 -...


    Interested to join the lab?

    If you're interested in the research topics mentioned above, or related ones, do not hesitate to contact me to discuss possible internships, PhDs, or postdocs.


    Lenormand T, Roze D. 202X. Revisiting the sheltering theory: can deleterious mutations alone explain the evolution of sex chromosomes? bioRxiv

    Recent papers

    Laroche F, Lenormand T. 2023. The genetic architecture of local adaptation in a cline. Peer Community Journal 3.

    Lenormand T, Roze D. 2022. Y recombination arrest and degeneration in the absence of sexual dimorphism. Science,375:663-666. https://www.science.org/stoken/author-tokens/ST-327/full

    Muyle A, Marais GAB, Bačovský V, Hobza R, Lenormand T. 2022. Dosage compensation evolution in plants: theories, controversies and mechanisms. Philosophical TransactionsB 377: 20210222

    Pais-Costa AJ, Lievens EJ, Redón S, Sánchez MI, Jabbour-Zahab R, Joncour P, Van Hoa N, Van Stappen G, Lenormand T. 2022. Strong transgenerational effects but no genetic adaptation in zooplankton 24 years after an abrupt+ 10° C climate change. Evolution Letters6:284-294.

    Rode NO, Jabbour-Zahab R, Boyer L, Flaven É, Hontoria F, Van Stappen G, Haag C, Lenormand T. 2022. The origin of asexual brine shrimps. Am. Nat.200: E52-E76.

    Boyer L, R Zahab, M Mosna, C Haag, T Lenormand. 2021. Not so clonal asexuals: unraveling the secret sex life of Artemia parthenogenetica. Evolution Letters5:164-174.

    Bestová H, Segrestin J, von Schwartzenberg K, Škaloud P, Lenormand T, Violle C. 2021. Biological scaling in green algae: the role of cell size and geometry. Scientific Reports 11: 1-9.

    Simion P, Narayan J, Houtain A, Derzelle A, Baudry L, Nicolas E,... and Van Doninck K. 2021. Chromosome-level genome assembly reveals homologous chromosomes and recombination in asexual rotifer Adineta vaga. Science advances 7: eabg4216.

    Lenormand, T., Fyon, F., Sun, E., & Roze, D. 2020. Sex chromosome degeneration by regulatory evolution. Current Biology 30: 3001-3006.

    Lievens EJP, Y Michalakis, T Lenormand. 2020. Trait-specific trade-offs prevent niche expansion in two parasites. Recommended by PCI Evol Biol. JEB 33:1704-1714.

    Harmand N, V Federico, T Hindre, T Lenormand. 2019. Non-linear frequency-dependent selection promotes long-term coexistence between bacteria species. Ecology Letters 22, 1192-1202

    Lievens EJP, Rode NO, Landes J, Segard A, Jabbour-Zahab R, Michalakis Y, Lenormand T. 2019. Long-term prevalence data reveals spillover dynamics in a multi-host (Artemia), multi-parasite (Microsporidia) community. International Journal for Parasitology, 49, 471-480.


    Selected publications by topics

    Adaptation and mutation effects

    Bourguet, D., T. Lenormand, T. Guillemaud, V. Marcel, D. Fournier, and M. Raymond. 1997. Variation of dominance of newly arisen adaptive genes. Genetics 147:1225-1234.

    Chevin L.-M., G. Martin, T. Lenormand. 2010. Fisher’s model and the genomics of adaptation: restricted pleiotropy, heterogeneous mutation and parallel evolution. Evolution 64: 3213-3231PDF

    Gallet R., Latour Y., Bradley H., and T. Lenormand. 2014. The dynamics of niche evolution upon abrupt environmental change. Evolution 68:1257-1269

    Gallet R, Violle C, Fromin N, Jabbour-Zahab R, Enquist B, Lenormand T. 2017. The evolution of bacterial cell size: the internal diffusion-constraint hypothesis. ISME J. 11:1559-156

    Harmand N, Gallet R, Jabbour-Zahab R, Martin G, Lenormand T. 2016. Fisher’s geometrical model and the mutational patterns of antibiotic resistance across dose gradients. Evolution 71:23-37.

    Harmand N, Gallet R, Martin G, Lenormand T. 2018. Evolution of bacteria specialization along an antibiotic dose gradient.Evol.Let. in press.

    Jasmin J.-N., Lenormand T. 2016.Accelerating mutational load is not due to synergistic epistasis or mutator alleles in mutation accumulation lines of yeast. Genetics DOI115.182774

    Labbé, P., Sidos, N., Raymond, M., and Lenormand, T., 2009. Resistance Gene Replacement in the Mosquito Culex Pipiens: Fitness Estimation from Long Term Cline Series. Genetics 182:303-312PDF

    Lenormand, T., D. Roze, F. Rousset. 2009. Stochasticity in evolution. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 24: 157-165.PDF

    Lenormand T, Chevin LMC, Bataillon T. 2016. Parallel evolution : what does it (not) tell us and why is it (still) interesting? [Book chapter, in Chance in EvolutionRamsey G & C Pence Eds, Univ. Chicago Press]. 

    Lenormand, Nougué O, Jabbour-Zahab R, Arnaud F, Dezileau L, Chevin L.-M and Sánchez M. 2017 Resurrection Ecology in Artemia. Evol Appl. 11:76-87

    Lenormand T, Harmand N, Gallet R. Cost of resistance: an unreasonably expensive concept. bioRxiv.

    Manna F., Martin G., and T. Lenormand. 2011. Fitness landscape: an alternative theory for the dominance of mutations. Genetics 189:923-937.PDF.

    Manna F., Gallet R., Martin G., and T. Lenormand. 2012. The high throughput yeast deletion fitness data and the theories of dominance. JEB, 25:892-903.PDF.

    Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2006. A general multivariate extension of Fisher's geometrical model and the distribution of mutation fitness effects across species. Evolution 60:893-907. AwardedFisher Prize 2007, Best PhD paper published in Evolution in 2006.PDF

    Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2006. The fitness effect of mutations in stressful environments: a survey in the light of fitness landscape models. Evolution 60:2413-2427.PDF

    Martin, G., S.F. Elena and T. Lenormand. 2007. Distributions of epistasis in microbes fit predictions from a fitness landscape model. Nature Genetics 39:555-560.PDF

    Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2008. The distribution of beneficial and fixed mutation fitness effects close to an optimum. Genetics. 179: 907-916.PDF

    Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2015. The fitness effect of mutations across environments: Fisher's geometric model with multiple optima.Evolution 69:1433-1447

    Nougué O, Svendsen N, Zahab R, Lenormand T, Chevin LM. 2016.The ontogeny of tolerance curves : habitat quality versus acclimation in a stressful environment.J. Anim. Ecol. Doi 10.1111/1365-2656.12572.

    Local adaptation

    Alberto F., S. N. Aitken, R. Alía, S. C. González-Martínez, H. Hänninen, A. Kremer, F. Lefèvre, T. Lenormand, S. Yeaman, R. Whetten, O. Savolainen. 2013. Potential for evolutionary responses to climate change - evidence from tree populations. Global Change Biology doi: 10.1111/gcb.12181.

    Debarre F., Lenormand, T. and Gandon S. Evolutionary epidemiology of drug-resistance in space. 2009. PLoS Comp. Biol. 5:e1000337.PDF

    Debarre F.,and T. Lenormand. 2011.Distance-limited dispersal promotes coexistence at habitat boundaries: reconsidering the competitive exclusion principle. Ecology Letters, 14: 260-266PDF

    Epinat, G., and T. Lenormand. 2009. The evolution of assortative mating and selfing with in- and outbreeding depression. Evolution. 63: 2047-2060.PDF

    Gallet R, Latour Y, Hughes B S, Lenormand T. 2014. The dynamics of niche evolution upon abrupt environmental change. Evolution 68: 1257-1269

    Guillemaud, T., T. Lenormand, D. Bourguet, C. Chevillon, N. Pasteur, and M. Raymond. 1998. Evolution of resistance in Culex pipiens: Allele replacement and changing environment. Evolution 52:443-453.

    Labbe, P., T. Lenormand, and M. Raymond. 2005. On the worldwide spread of an insecticide resistance gene: a role for local selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 18:1471-1484.PDF

    Lenormand, T. 2002. Gene flow and the limits to natural selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17:183-189.PDF

    Lenormand, T., D. Bourguet, T. Guillemaud, and M. Raymond. 1999. Tracking the evolution of insecticide resistance in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Nature 400:861-864.PDF

    Lenormand, T., and M. Raymond. 1998. Resistance management: the stable zone strategy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 265:1985-1990.PDF

    Lenormand, T., and M. Raymond. 2000. Analysis of clines with variable selection and variable migration. American Naturalist 155:70-82.PDF

    Milesi P, Lenormand T., Lagneau C, Weill M, Labbé P. 2016. Relating Fitness to Long-term Environmental Variations in natura.Molecular Ecoloy 25:5483-5499.

    Gene duplication evolution

    Labbe, P., A. Berthomieu, C. Berticat, H. Alout, M. Raymond, T. Lenormand, and M. Weill. 2007. Independent duplications of the acetylcholinesterase gene conferring insecticide resistance in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24:1056-1067. PDF

    Lenormand, T., T. Guillemaud, D. Bourguet, and M. Raymond. 1998. Appearance and sweep of a gene duplication: Adaptive response and potential for new functions in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Evolution 52:1705-1712. PDF

    Labbé P., Milesi P., Yébakima A., Weill M., and T. Lenormand. 2014. Gene dosage effects on fitness in recent adaptive duplications : ace-1 in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Evolution 68: 2092-2101

    Labbe, P., C. Berticat, A. Berthomieu, S. Unal, C. Bernard, M. Weill and T. Lenormand. 2007. Forty years of erratic insecticide resistance evolution in the mosquito Culex pipiens. PLoS Genetics, 3:e205. PDF

    Milesi P, Weill M, Lenormand T., Labbé P. 2017. Heterogeneous gene duplications can be adaptive because they permanently associate overdominant alleles.Evolution Letters, in press

    Sex, recombination, life cycles

    Fyon F, Lenormand T. 2018. Cis-regulator runaway and divergence in asexuals. Evolution 10.1111/evo.13424

    Haag C, Theodosiou L, Zahab R, Lenormand T. 2017. Low recombination rates in sexual species and sex-asex transitions Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B. DOI: 10.1098/rstb. 2016-0461

    Lenormand T, Engelstädter J, Johnston SE, Wijnker E, Haag CR. 2016. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B, Doi 10.1098/rstb.2016.0001. alsohereon BiorXiv

    Lenormand, T. 2003. The evolution of sex dimorphism in recombination. Genetics 163:811-822.PDF

    Lenormand, T., and S. P. Otto. 2000. The evolution of recombination in a heterogeneous environment. Genetics 156:423-438.PDF

    Lenormand, T., and J. Dutheil. 2005. Recombination difference between sexes: A role for haploid selection.PLoS Biology 3:396-403. PDF

    Lenormand T, Roze D, Cheptou P-O, Maurice S. 2010. L'évolution du sexe: un carrefour pour la biologie évolutive. in Biologie évolutive.M. Raymond, F. Thomas, T. Lefèvre, Eds. DeBoeck.
    Everything you ever wanted to know about sex, but in French

    Lievens EJP, Henriques GJB, Michalakis Y, Lenormand T. 2016.Maladaptive sex ratio adjustment in the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Curr Biol. 26:1463–1467

    Martin, G., S. P. Otto, and T. Lenormand. 2006. Selection for recombination in structured populations. Genetics 172:593-609.PDF

    Mollion M, Ehlers BK, Figuet E, Santoni S, Lenormand T, Maurice S, Galtier N, Bataillon T. 2017.Patterns of genome-wide nucleotide diversity in the gynodioecious plant Thymus vulgaris are compatible with recent sweeps of cytoplasmic genes. Genome biology and evolution 10:239-248

    Nougué O, Flaven E, Jabbour-Zahab R, Rode N O, Dubois M-P, Lenormand T. 2015. Characterization of nine new polymorphic microsatellite markers in Artemia parthenogenetica. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 58, 59-63

    Nougué O, Rode NO, Jabbour Zahab R, Ségard A, Chevin LMC, Haag C, Lenormand T. 2015. Automixis in Artemia: solving a century old controversy. J. Evol. Biol. 28:2337-2348

    Otto, S. P., and T. Lenormand. 2002. Resolving the paradox of sex and recombination. Nature Reviews Genetics 3:252-261.PDF

    Rescan M, Lenormand T, Roze D. 2016. Interaction between genetic and ecological effects on the evolution of life cycles. American Naturalist 187: 19-34

    Roze, D., and T. Lenormand. 2005. Self-fertilization and the evolution of recombination. Genetics 170:841-857.PDF

    Henry, P. Y., L. Vimond, T. Lenormand, and P. Jarne. 2006. Is delayed selfing adjusted to chemical cues of density in the freshwater snail Physa acuta? Oikos 112:448-455.PDF

    Svendsen N, Reisser CMO, Dukić M, Thuillier V, Ségard A, Liautard-Haag C, Fasel D, Hürlimann E, Lenormand T, Galimov Y and Haag CR. 2015. Uncovering Cryptic Asexuality in Daphnia magna by RAD-Sequencing. Genetics 201:1143-1155


    Bierne, N., T. Lenormand, F. Bonhomme, and P. David. 2002. Deleterious mutations in a hybrid zone: can mutational load decrease the barrier to gene flow? Genetical Research 80:197-204.PDF

    Chevin, L.-M., Decorzent G., T. Lenormand. 2014. Niche dimensionality and the genetics of ecological speciation. Evolution 68:1244-1256

    Fel-Clair, F., J. Catalan, T. Lenormand, and J. Britton-Davidian. 1998. Centromeric incompatibilities in the hybrid zone between house mouse subspecies from Denmark: Evidence from patterns of NOR activity. Evolution 52:592-603.

    Fel-Clair, F., T. Lenormand, J. Catalan, J. Grobert, A. Orth, P. Boursot, M. C. Viroux, and J. BrittonDavidian. 1996. Genomic incompatibilities in the hybrid zone between house mice in Denmark: Evidence from steep and non-coincident chromosomal clines for Robertsonian fusions. Genetical Research 67:123-134.

    Ganem, G, C. Litel, and T. Lenormand. 2008. Variation in mate preference across a house mouse hybrid zone. Heredity. 6:594-601PDF

    Gay, L., P. Crochet, D. Bell, and T. Lenormand. 2008. Comparing genetic and phenotypic clines in hybrid zones: a window on tension zone models. Evolution 62: 2789-2806PDF

    Lenormand T. 2012. From local adaptation to speciation: specialization and reinforcement. International Journal of Ecology. Ecological speciation (special issue) article ID 508458.PDF

    Lenormand, T., F. FelClair, K. Manolakou, P. Alibert, and J. BrittonDavidian. 1997. Chromosomal transmission bias in laboratory hybrids between wild strains of the two European subspecies of house mice.Genetics 147:1279-1287. PDF


    Billiard, S., and T. Lenormand. 2005. Evolution of migration under kin selection and local adaptation. Evolution 59:13-23. PDF

    Lenormand, T., T. Guillemaud, D. Bourguet, and M. Raymond. 1998. Evaluating gene flow using selected markers: A case study. Genetics 149:1383-1392. PDF

    Rieux A, Lenormand T., Carlier J., de Lapeyre de Bellaire L., Ravigne V. 2013 Using neutral cline decay to estimate contemporary dispersal: a generic tool and its application to a major crop pathogen.Ecology Letters 16 :721-730

    Genetic conflicts

    Autran D, Baroux C, Raissig MT, Lenormand T, Wittig M, Grob S, Steimer A, Barann M, Klostermeir UC, Leblanc O, Vielle-Calzada JP, Rosenstiel P, Grimanelli D, Grossniklaus U. 2011.Maternal epigenetic pathways control parental contributions to Arabidopsisearly embryogenesis. Cell 145: 707-719.PDF

    Cailleau A., P.-O. Cheptou, T. Lenormand. 2010. Ploidy and the evolution of endosperm of flowering plants. Genetics 184:439-453.PDF

    Cailleau A, Grimanelli D, Cheptou P-O, Lenormand T. 2018. Dividing a maternal pie among half-sibs: genetic conflicts and the control of resource allocation to seeds in maize. Am. Nat. in press.

    Fyon F., Cailleau A., Lenormand T. 2015. Enhancer runaway and the Evolution of diploid gene expression.PLoS Genet. DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005665.

    Rode N., Charmantier A., Lenormand T. 2011.Male-female coevolution in the wild : evidence from a time series inArtemia franciscana. Evolution 65:2881-2892.PDF
    On the web See a great summary by Carl Zimmer
    here or in Wiredhere.

    Biotic interactions

    Ehlers B., David P., Damgaard C.F., Lenormand T. 2016. Competitor relatedness, indirect soil effects, and plant co-existence. Journal of Ecology 104: 1134-1135

    Gallet, R., T. Lenormand and I.-N. Wang, 2012 Phenotypic stochasticity prevents lytic bacteriophage population from extinction during bacterial stationary phase. Evolution 66: 3485-3494.PDF

    Lievens EJP, Rode NO, Landes J, Segard A, Jabbour-Zahab R, Michalakis Y, Lenormand T. 2018. Long-term prevalence data reveals spillover dynamics in a multi-host (Artemia), multi-parasite (Microsporidia) community. bioRxiv 248542.

    Lievens EJP, Perreau JMA, Agnew P, Michalakis Y, Lenormand T. 2018. Decomposing parasite fitness in a two-host, two-parasite system reveals the underpinnings of parasite specialization. bioRxiv 256974.

    Nougué O, Gallet R, Chevin LMC, Lenormand T. 2015.Niche Limits of Symbiotic Gut Microbiota Constrain the Salinity Tolerance of Brine Shrimp. American Naturalist 186:390-403
    Microbiota impact the niche and an extended definition of realized niches

    Rode N.O., Lievens EJP, Flaven E., Segard A., Jabbour-Zahab R., Sanchez M, Lenormand T. 2013. Why join groups? Lessons from parasite-manipulated Artemia. Ecology Letters 16:493-501.PDF
    On the web:
    Parasites Make Their Hosts Sociable So They Get Eaten. Ed Yong's National Geographic Blog

    Rode N.O., Landes J., Lievens E.J.P., Flaven E., Segard A., Jabbour-Zahab R., Michalakis Y., Agnew P., Vivares C., Lenormand T. 2013. Cytological, molecular and life cycle characterization of Anostracospora rigaudi n. g., n. sp. and Enterocytospora artemiae n. g., n. sp., two new microsporidian parasites infecting gut tissues of the brine shrimp Artemia.Parasitology 140:1168-1185

    Sánchez M.I., N.O. Rode, E. Flaven, S. Redón, F. Amat, G.P. Vasileva, T. Lenormand.2012. Differential susceptibility to parasites of invasive and native species of Artemia living in sympatry: consequences for the invasion ofA. franciscana in the Mediterranean Region. Biological Invasion, 14:1819-1829.PDF

    Sanchez M., Pons I., Martinez-Haro M., Taggart M.A., Lenormand T., Green A. 2016. When parasites are good for health: cestode parasitism increases resistance to arsenic in brine shrimps. PLoS PathogensDOIe1005459

    Vasileva G.P., Redon S., Amat F., Nikolov P.N., Sanchez M., Lenormand T., Georgiev B.B. 2009 Records of cysticercoids of Fimbriarioides tadornae (Maksimova, 1976) and Branchiopodataenia gvozdevi (Maksimova, 1988) (Cyclophyllidea, Hymenolepididae) from brine shrimps at the Mediterraneancoasts of Spain and France, with a key to cestodes from Artemia spp. from the Western Mediterranean.Acta Parasitologica 54: 143-150. PDF


    Gallet R., Cooper T., Elena S.F., T. Lenormand. 2012. Measuring selection coefficients below 10-3 : method, questions and prospects. Genetics, 190:175-186.PDF
    Over 150 millions phenotypes scored, one of the most precise measure of selection ever made and the questions it raises

    Gimenez O., R. Covas, C. Brown, M. Anderson, M. Bomberger Brown, and T. Lenormand. 2006. Nonparametric estimation of natural selection on a quantitative trait using capture-mark-recapture data. Evolution 60:460-466.PDF

    Gimenez O., Gregoire A., Lenormand T. 2009. Estimating and visualizing fitness surfaces using mark-recapture data.Evolution. 63: 3097-3105.

    Lenormand T, Rode NO, Chevin LMC, Rousset F. 2016. Valeur sélective: définitions, enjeux et mesures. in Biologie évolutive 2nd edition.M. Raymond, F. Thomas, T. Lefèvre, Eds. DeBoeck.
    Everything you ever wanted to know about fitness, but in French




    Download CFit : a stand-alone package to fit clines



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  • Véronique ARNAL

    V Arnal

    Ingénieur d’Etude (EPHE - PSL)

    Campus du CNRS
    1919, route de Mende
    34293 Montpellier 5

     tél :33 (0)4 67 61 32 54

    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    Référente données (UMR5175)

    Expertise en biologie moléculaire 

    • phylogénie,  phylogéographie, dynamique des populations, épidémiologie
    • détection ADN rares
    • mise au point de marqueurs moléculaires (gènes et locus microsatellites) 
    • outils bio-informatiques