• Cyrille VIOLLE

    altDirecteur de recherche CNRS

    CEFE/CNRS
    Campus du CNRS
    1919, route de Mende
    34293 Montpellier 5

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    A l’interface entre écologie fonctionnelle et écologie des communautés, je cherche à comprendre les causes de variation de la biodiversité, aussi bien à l’échelle locale que continentale, et l’effet de changements de la biodiversité sur la dynamique et le fonctionnement des écosystèmes.

  • Lauren GILLESPIE

    Lauren

          Doctorante

    CNRS CEFE (Room 212A)Soil logo v3 change

    1919, route de Mende

    34293 Montpellier

    lauren.gillespie(at)cefe.cnrs.fr

     

    Sujet de thèse :L’impact du changement climatique sur le fonctionnement microbien du sol le long des gradients de diversité des arbres dans des forêts Européennes.

    Thesis subject:Soil microbial functioning under climate change across tree diversity gradients in European forests.

    Encadrants/Supervisors : Stephan HÄTTENSCHWILER, Nathalie FROMIN & Alexandru MILCU

     

    Objectif (français) : 

    Ma thèse fait partie du projet collaboratif « SoilForEUROPE » avec la participation de plusieurs partenaires en France, en Allemagne, en Belgique, en Suède et en Pays-Bas. SoilForEUROPE vise à comprendre la relation entre la diversité des espèces d’arbres et la diversité des organismes du sol, et leurs conséquences pour le fonctionnement des écosystèmes forestiers sous changement climatique à l’échelle Européenne.IMG 20170819 WA0007

    L’objectif de ma thèse est de comprendre les mécanismes sous-jacents de la résistance et la résilience du fonctionnement microbien (l’activité microbien et les flux de gaz) face à des évènements de sècheresse extrême sous conditions contrôlées (sur le terrain et à l’Ecotron Européen à Montpellier). Je vais également interagir étroitement avec l’ensemble des membres du consortium sur différents aspects liés aux activités microbiennes (la diversité microbienne, la diversité de la faune de sol, le fonctionnement des racines, etc.).   

    Objective (english) :

    My PhD is part of the SoilForEUROPE project including several partners from France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, and the Netherlands. SoilForEUROPE aims to understand the relationships between tree species diversity and soil diversity, and their consequences for ecosystem functioning across major European forest types under climate change.

    The objective of my PhD is to understand the driving mechanisms of ecosystem resistance and resilience of microbial functioning (microbial activity and trace gas fluxes) to extreme drought events under controlled conditions (in the field and at the European Ecotron in Montpellier). I will also closely interact with all members of the consortium on related aspects (microbial diversity, soil fauna diversity, root functioning, etc.).

     

    Publications :

    Hättenschwiler S., Barantal S., Ganault P., Gillespie L., Coq S., (2018). Quels enjeux sont associés à la biodiversité des sols ? Innovations Agronomiques, 69, 1-14.

    Bristiel, P., Gillespie, L., Østrem, L., Balachowski, J., Violle, C., & Volaire, F. (2018). Experimental evaluation of the robustness of the growth–stress tolerance trade‐off within the perennial grass Dactylis glomerata. Functional Ecology, 32(8),1944-1958.
     
    Gillespie, L. M., & Volaire, F. A. (2017). Are winter and summer dormancy symmetrical seasonal adaptive strategies? The case of temperate herbaceous perennials. Annals of botany, 119(3), 311-323.
     
    Yap, T. A., Gillespie, L., Ellison, S., Flechas, S. V., Koo, M. S., Martinez, A. E., & Vredenburg, V. T. (2016). Invasion of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis on California islands. EcoHealth, 13(1), 145.
     
     
    Études/Education :                                
     
    Master 2 (Second year of Master's program) (2015) : La relation entre croissance et survie au stress constitue-t-elle un compromis évolutif ou une relation dynamique: le cas de Dactylis glomerata L.(Is the relationship between growth and stress survival an evolutionary trade-off or a dynamic linkage: the case of Dactylis glomerata L.).  Encadré par : Florence VOLAIRE (Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive – CNRS – 34293 Montpellier – France). Formation : Master 2 Biodiversité, Ecologie et Environnement à l’Université Grenoble Alpes.
     
    Master 1 (First year of Master's program) (2014) : Effets du dérangement humain sur les oiseaux forestiers (Effects of anthropogenic disturbance on forest birds). Encadré par : Yves Bötsch (La Station Ornithologique Suisse – 6204 – Sempach – Suisse). Formation : Master 1 Biodiversité, Ecologie et Environnement – Université Grenoble Alpes – Grenoble – France.
     
    Bachelor (2008 – 2012) : Formation : Biology concentration in Ecology – San Francisco State University – California – USA
     
  • Nathalie FROMIN

    Chargée de recherche CNRS (CR1)    Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots spammeurs. Vous devez activer le JavaScript pour la visualiser.

     nathalie-fromin

    I am a soil ecologist studying plant - microorganisms - soil interactions in terrestrial ecosystems in a context of global change. My research aims at understanding the response of soil microbial communities and the processes they control to plant diversity in a changing world.

    See my publications onResearchGate

    https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3752-7503

     

  • Stéphanie BEDHOMME

    IMG 4503














     

    Chargée de Recherche, HDR

    CEFE/CNRS
    Campus du CNRS
    1919, route de Mende
    34293 Montpellier 5

    Tél : +33/0 4 67 61 32 11

    Stephanie.bedhomme[at]cefe.cnrs.fr

     

    Bref CV

    2018 : HDR, Université de Montpellier

    2014-     : CRCN CNRS, CEFE
    2012-13 : Postdoc at Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL, Barcelone, Spain)
    2009-12 : Postdoc at the Molecular and Cellular Plant Biology Institute (IBMCP, Valence, Spain)

    2007-09 : Teaching and researche assistant, Münster University (Allemagne)

    2005-07 : Postdoc at Queen’s University (Kingston, Canada)

    2000-04 : PhD in the Genetic and Evolution of Infectious Disease laboratory (IRD, Montpellier)

    Thèmes de recherches (english version below)

    Transfert horizontal de gène, résistance antibiotique et évolution post-transfert

    Nous travaillons actuellement sur les règles de circulation des gènes par transfert horizontal. Le transfert horizontal est un mécanisme qui contribue fortement à l'évolution des génomes procaryotes mais tous les gènes ne sont pas dans tous les génomes. Il existe donc des facteurs qui favorisent ou limitent les transferts et les orientent. Les recherches que nous conduisons actuellement visent à étudier le rôle de ces facteurs à différentes échelles temporelles et spatiales. Nous nous intéressons en priorité, mais pas en exclusivité, aux transferts de gènes de résistance aux antibiotiques : les données et connaissance les concernant sont abondantes, la manipulation des pressions de sélection en laboratoire est aisée et nos résultats ont potentiellement des applications plus ou moins directes pour la gestion du problème de santé publique que représente la propagation des résistances antibiotiques.

    Les questions auxquelles nous essayons de répondre actuellement sont :

    • Quels sont les facteurs (écologie, pression de sélection, géographie…) qui déterminent les prévalences de gènes de résistances à l’échelle mondiale ?

    • Quels sont les facteurs (partage de niche écologique, association à des éléments génétiques mobiles, similarité de contexte génomique, distance phylogénétique entre hôte) qui favorisent les transferts horizontaux ?

    • L’usage de codons du gène transféré affecte-il la fonctionnalité de ce gène dans le génome récepteur ?

    • Le transfert horizontal d’un gène peut-il entrainer une évolution compensatoire ?

    • L’évolution post-transfert est-elle détectable à différentes échelles temporelles ?

    Les approches utilisées sont la mesure de fitness de collections de mutants et de gènes, l'évolution expérimentale, la génomique bactérienne et la génomique comparative.

    Propagation des hypermutateurs dans les populations bactériennes

    Les hypermutateurs sont des génotypes bactériens dont le taux de mutation ponctuel est plus élevé (10 à 1000 fois) que dans le reste de l’espèce. Des modèles théoriques prédisent qu’ils ont un avantage et se propagent dans les populations qui se trouvent loin de leur optimum adaptatif. En effet, dans cette situation, la proportion de mutations avantageuses parmi toutes les mutations générées est plus importante ; les hypermutateurs ont donc un avantage transitoire en augmentant à l’approvisionnement en mutation avantageuse puis ils augmentent en fréquence en raison de la liaison génétique entre le déterminant génétique de l’hypermutation et la mutation avantageuse générée. Les conditions de propagation des hypermutateurs ont été étudiées par des approches théoriques et par des approches expérimentales qui mettent en compétition un hypermutateur avec son ancêtre mais il existe très peu d’approches expérimentales où l’apparition et la propagation d’hypermutateurs a été suivie dans plusieurs conditions environnementales. Nous avons mis en place un dispositif d’évolution expérimentale qui permet de faire cela pour les conditions environnementales suivantes : doses subinhibitrices de gentamicine et forte salinité. Dans le cadre de cette approche, nous posons lesquestions suivantes :

    • La probabilité et la vitesse de propagation des hypermutateurs dépend-elle du type de stress et de la largeur de la base génétique d’adaptation à ce stress ?

    • Comment déterminer la nature et la base génétique de l’adaptation par une approche « évoluer et reséquencer » ?

    • L’évolution en présence de concentrations subinhibitrices de gentamicine conduit-elle à des niveaux élevés de résistance ?

    • Quel est le rôle de l’hétérogénéité de taux de mutation le long du génome dans l’évolution parallèle entre populations indépendante ?

    Pollution microplastique, bactéries pathogènes et résistances antibiotique.

    Les plastiques, en usage ou après usage, se dégradent et libèrent dans leur environnement immédiat des nano- et microparticules. Ces particules sont transportées à longue distance par l’eau ou l’air, peuvent pénétrer dans tous les organismes vivants et représentent un danger direct pour la santé humaine, animale et végétale. Ces particules peuvent également se convertir en support pour la formation de biofilm qui peuvent contenir des espèces bactériennes pathogènes pour certaines espèces animales et/ou pour les humains. Nous nous intéressons au rôle potentiel des micro-plastiques comme vecteur de pathogènes en utilisantVibrio anguillarum comme modèle bactérien et des microparticules de polystyrène, polypropylène et polyéthylène téréphtalate.

    Dans ce contexte scientifique, nous posons lesquestions suivantes :

    • Quelle est la variabilité intraspécifique d’adhérence deV. anguillarum aux microparticules de plastique ? Peut-on identifier les déterminants génétiques de cette adhérence ?

    • Quelles sont les espèces bactériennes composant les biofilms sur les microparticules ? Comment cette composition varie-t-elle au cours des saisons et au travers des environnements marins ou côtier ?

    • Les biofilms associés aux microplastiques présentent-ils une surreprésentation de certaines espèces ou de certains gènes (résistance aux antibiotiques par exemple) par rapport au microbiote environnant ?

    • La composition des biofilms associés aux microplastiques affecte-t-elle l’adhésion de la bactérie pathogèneV. anguillarum ?

    • Les biofilms associés aux microplastiques sont-ils des points chauds de transfert horizontal ?

    Mots clés:

    transfert horizontal de gène, résistance aux antibiotiques, effet en fitness de la variation synonyme, usage des codons, évolution expérimentale, génomique bactérienne, biofilms, pollution microplastique.

    Research topics

    Horizontal gene transfer, antibiotic resistance and post-transfer evolution

    We are currently working on the horizontal transfer traffic rules. Horizontal transfer is a mechanism that strongly contributes to the evolution of prokaryotic genomes but all genes are not found in all genomes. There are therefore factors that promote or limit transfers and direct them. Our current research aims to study the role of these factors at different temporal and spatial scales. We are primarily, but not exclusively, interested in the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes: data and knowledge about them are abundant, the manipulation of selection pressures in the laboratory is easy, and our results have potentially more or less direct applications for the management of the public health problem represented by the spread of antibiotic resistance.

    Thequestions we are currently trying to answer are:

    • -What are the factors (ecology, selection pressure, geography...) that determine the prevalences of resistance genes on a global scale?

    • - What are the factors (ecological niche sharing, association with mobile genetic elements, genomic context similarity, phylogenetic distance between hosts) that favor horizontal transfers?

    • - Does codon usage of the transferred gene affect the functionality of that gene in the recipient genome?

    • - Can horizontal transfer of a gene lead to compensatory evolution?

    • - Is post-transfer evolution detectable at different time scales?

    Theapproaches used are fitness measurement of mutant and gene collections, experimental evolution, bacterial genomics and comparative genomics.

    Propagation of hypermutators in bacterial populations

    Hypermutators are bacterial genotypes with a higher point mutation rate (10 to 1000 times) than the rest of the species. Theoretical models predict that they have an advantage and spread in populations that are far from their adaptive optimum. This is because in this situation, the proportion of advantageous mutations among all generated mutations is greater; thus, hypermutators have a transient advantage by increasing in supply of advantageous mutation and then increase in frequency due to the genetic linkage between the genetic determinant of the hypermutation and the generated advantageous mutation. The conditions of hypermutator propagation have been studied by theoretical approaches and by experimental approaches that put a hypermutator in competition with its ancestor but there are very few experimental approaches where the appearance and propagation of hypermutators has been followed under several environmental conditions. We have set up an experimental evolutionary setup that does this for the following environmental conditions: subinhibitory doses of gentamicin and high salinity. In this approach, we ask the followingquestions:

    • Does the probability and rate of hypermutator spread depend on the type of stress and the width of the genetic basis for adaptation to that stress?

    • How can the nature and genetic basis of adaptation be determined by an "evolve and resequence" approach?

    • Does evolution in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of gentamicin lead to high levels of resistance?

    • What is the role of mutation rate heterogeneity along the genome in parallel evolution between independent populations?

    Microplastic pollution, pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic resistance.

    Plastics, in use or after use, degrade and release nano- and micro-particles into their immediate environment. These particles are transported over long distances by water or air, can penetrate all living organisms and represent a direct danger for human, animal and plant health. These particles can also become a surface where biofilm forms which may contain bacterial species pathogenic to certain animal species and/or humans. We are interested in the potential role of micro-plastics as pathogen vectors usingVibrio anguillarum as a bacterial model and polystyrene, polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate microparticles.

    In this scientific context, we ask the followingquestions:

    • What is the intraspecific variability of V. anguillarum adherence to plastic microparticles? Can we identify the genetic determinants of this adhesion?

    • What are the bacterial species composing biofilms on microparticles? How does this composition vary over the seasons and across marine or coastal environments?

    • Do microplastic-associated biofilms show an over-representation of certain species or genes (e.g. antibiotic resistance) relative to the surrounding microbiota?

    • Does the composition of microplastic-associated biofilms affect the adhesion of the pathogenic bacterium V. anguillarum?

    • Are microplastic-associated biofilms hotspots for horizontal transfer?

    Key words:

    Horizontal gene transfer, antibiotic resistance, fitness effect of synonymous variation, codon usage, experimental evolution, bacterial genomics, biofilms, microplastic pollution.

    Publications

    • Callens M., Scornavacca C. and Bedhomme S. (2021) Evolutionary responses to codon usage of horizontally transferred genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbial Genomics, 7:000587. doi: 10.1099/mgen.0.000587.

    • Pradier L., Tissot T., Fiston-Lavier A-S. and Bedhomme S. (2021) PlasForest: a homology-based random forest classifier for plasmid detection in genomic datasets. BMC Bioinformatics,22: 349. doi: 10.1186/s12859-021-04270-w.

    • Callens M., Pradier L., Finnegan M., Rose C.J. and Bedhomme S. (2021) Read between the lines: Diversity of non-translational selection pressures on local codon usage. Genome Biology and Evolution, evab097. doi:10.1093/gbe/evab097.

    • Bedhomme S., Amorós-Moya D., Valero L.M., Bonifaci N., Pujana M-A. and Bravo I.G. (2019) Evolutionary changes after translational challenges imposed by horizontal gene transfer. Genome Biology and Evolution, 11:814–831. doi:10.1093/gbe/evz031.

    • Bedhomme S., Perez-Pantoja D. and Bravo I.G. (2017) Plasmid and clonal interference during post-horizontal gene transfer evolution. Molecular Ecology, 26: 1832-1847. doi:10.1111/mec.14056.

    • Mengual-Chuliá B., Bedhomme, S., Lafforgue, G., Elena, S.F., Bravo, I.G. (2016) Assessing parallel gene histories in viral genomes. BMC Evolutionary Biology 16:32.

    • Félez-Sánchez M., Trösemeier J-H., Bedhomme S., González-Bravo M-I, Kamp C. and Bravo I.G. (2015) Cancer, warts or asymptomatic infections: clinical presentation matches codon usage preferences in human papillomaviruses. Genome Biology and Evolution, 7:2117–2135.

    • Bedhomme S., Hillung, J. and Elena S.F. (2015). Emerging viruses: why they are not jacks of all trades? Current Opinion in Virology 10:1–6.

    • Larcombe S.D., Bedhomme S., Garnier S., Cellier-Holzem E., Faivre B. and Sorci G. (2013) Social interactions modulate the virulence of avian malaria infection. International Journal of Parasitology 43: 861-867.

    • Bedhomme S., Lafforgue G. and Elena S.F. (2013) Genotypic but not phenotypic historical contingency revealed by viral experimental evolution. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13:46.

    • Bedhomme, S.,Lafforgue, G. and Elena S.F. (2012) Multihost experimental evolution of a plant RNA virus reveals local adaptation and host specific mutations. Molecular Biology and Evolution 29:1481–1492.

    • Bedhomme, S., Chippindale, A.K., Prasad, N.G, Delcourt, M., Abbott, J.K., Mallet, M.A. and Rundle, H.D. (2011) Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict over the sexually dimorphic cuticular hydrocarbons of Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Genetics 90: 443-452.

    • Jiang, P.P., Bedhomme, S., Prasad, N.G. and Chippindale, A.K. (2011) Sperm competition and mate harm unresponsive to male-limited selection in Drosophila: An evolving genetic architecture under domestication. Evolution 65: 2448-2460.

    • Bedhomme, S. and Elena, S.F. (2011) Virus infection suppresses Nicotiana benthamiana adaptive phenotypic plasticity. PLoS ONE 6: e17275.

    • Elena, S.F.,Bedhomme, S., Carrasco, P., Cuevas, J.M., de la Iglesia, F., Lafforgue,G., Lalić, J., Pròsper, A., Tromas, N. and Zwart, M.P. (2011) The evolutionary genetics of emerging plant RNA viruses. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 24: 287–293.

    • Abbott, J.K., Bedhomme, S. and Chippindale A.K. (2010) Sexual conflict in wing size and shape in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Evolutionary Biology231989-1997.

    • Amoros-Moya, D., Bedhomme, S., Hermann, M. and Bravo, I.G. (2010) Evolution in regulatory regions rapidly compensates the cost of non-optimal codon usage. Molecular Biology and Evolution 27: 2141–2151.

    • Bedhomme, S., Bernasconi, G., Koene, J.M., Lankinen, A.,Arathi, H.S., Michiels, N.K. and Anthes, N. (2009) How does breeding system variation modulate sexual antagonism? Biology Letters5: 717-720.

    • Michalakis, Y., Bedhomme, S., Biron, D.G., Rivero, A., Sidobre, C. and Agnew, P. (2008) Virulence and resistance in a mosquito – microsporidium interaction. Evolutionary applications 1: 49-56.

    • Bedhomme, S., Prasad, N.G., Jiang, P.P., Chippindale, A.K. (2008) Reproductive Behaviour Evolves Rapidly When Intralocus Sexual Conflict Is Removed. PLoS ONE 3: e2187.

    • Kwan, L., Bedhomme, S., Prasad, N.G. and Chippindale, A.K. (2008) Sexual conflict and environmental change: tradeoffs within and between the sexes during the evolution of desiccation resistance. Journal of Genetics 87: 383–394.

    • Rivero, A., Agnew, P., Bedhomme, S., Sidobre, C. and Michalakis, Y. (2007) Resource depletion in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected by the microsporidia Vavraia culicis. Parasitology 134: 1355-1362.

    • Prasad, N.G., Bedhomme, S., Day, T. and Chippindale, A.K. (2007) An evolutionary cost of separate genders revealed by male-limited evolution. American Naturalist 169: 29–37.

    • Prasad, N.G. and Bedhomme, S. (2006) Sexual conflict in plants. Journal of Genetics 85: 161-165.

    • Bedhomme, S., Agnew, P., Sidobre, C., Vital P.O. Y. and Michalakis, Y. (2005) Prevalence-dependent costs of parasite virulence. PLoS Biology 3: e262.

    • Bedhomme, S., Agnew, P., Sidobre, C. and Michalakis, Y. (2005) Pollution by conspecifics as a component of intraspecific competition among Aedes aegypti larvae. Ecological Entomology 30: 1-7.

    • Agnew, P., Berticat, C., Bedhomme, S., Sidobre, C. and Michalakis, Y. (2004) Parasitism increases and decreases the costs of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Evolution 58: 579-586.

    • Bedhomme, S., Agnew, P., Sidobre, C. and Michalakis, Y. (2004) Virulence reaction norms across a food gradient. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271: 739-744.

    • Bedhomme, S., Agnew, P., Sidobre, C. and Michalakis, Y. (2003) Sex-specific reaction norms to intraspecific larval competition in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 16: 721-730.

    • Agnew, P., Bedhomme, S., Haussy, C. and Michalakis, Y. (1999). Age and size at maturity of the mosquito Culex pipiens infected by the microsporidian parasite Vavraia culicisProceedings of the Royal Society of London B 266: 947-952.

    Book chapter:

    • Bataillon, T., Bedhomme, S., Dillmann, C., Gaba, S., Gallet, R., Guidot, A., Goldringer, I., Jasmin, J-N., Kaltz, O., Méry, F., Nidelet, T., Reboud, X., Schneider, D., Sicard, D. and Spor, A. 2015. Evolution expérimentale. In F. Thomas, T. Lefèvre et M. Raymond (Eds), Biologie Evolutive, De Boeck, collection LMD, France, 617-646.

    • Bedhomme, S. and Chippindale A.K. (2007) Irreconcilable differences: When sexual dimorphism fails to resolve sexual conflict (pp 185-194). In: Sex, Size and Gender Roles: Evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism. DJ Fairbairnm WU Blanckenhorn et T Székely editors. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

     

  • Sylvain GANDON

    Head of the department "Ecologie Evolutive et Comportementale"

    Founder of the team "Ecologie et Epidémiologie Evolutive"

    EVOLEPID website

    PUBLICATIONS

    Google Scholar


    CURRENT POSITION
    (Since 2010)  Director of research at CNRS - CEFE, Montpellier, France

    PREVIOUS POSITIONS
    (2002 - 2010) Permanent researcher at CNRS
    (2000-2001) Wellcome Trust fellow, Edinburgh University, UK 

    EDUCATION
    (2007) Habilitation to Direct Research (HDR) - Montpellier University
    (2000) PhD in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology - Paris VI University
    (1995) Master in Ecology - Paris VI University 

    FELLOWSHIPS AND AWARDS
    (2018)Visiting Professorship, Leverhulme Trust, Oxford, UK
    (2018-2022) ANR grant "EVOMALWILD"
    (2017-2018) CNRS PEPS MPI "Stochastic Evolutionary Epidemiology"
    (2010-2014) ERC Starting Grant "EVOLEPID"
    (2008-2011) ANR Young Investigator grant
    (2002) Young Investigator Prize - American Society of Naturalists
    (2000-2001) Wellcome Trust fellowship in mathematical epidemiology, Edinburgh University, UK

    EDITORIAL WORK
    (2011-2014)  Associate Editor for Proceedings of the Royal Society London B
    (2009-2011)  Associate Editor for Evolution


    CONTACT
    CEFE - UMR 5175
    1919, route de Mende
    34293 Montpellier 5
    Tél : +33/0 4 67 61 33 18
    Fax : +33/0 4 67 61 33 36
    sylvain.gandon(at)cefe.cnrs.fr



     

  • Thomas LENORMAND

    altDirecteur de Recherche CNRS

    CEFE
    Campus du CNRS
    1919, route de Mende
    34293 Montpellier 5
    Tél : +33/0 4 67 61 32 91
    Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots spammeurs. Vous devez activer le JavaScript pour la visualiser.
    @Th_Lenormand

    My principal area of research is Evolutionary genetics and evolutionary ecology. I have a broad expertise in evolutionary biology, genetics and ecology.

    I have been working on adaptation and mutation, local adaptation, evolution of genetic systems (sex, recombination, sex chromosomes), evolution of gene duplicates, speciation, genetic conflicts, dispersal, biotic interactions (parasites, microbiota), statistics and fitness measures. I have been working with many empirical systems (vertebrates, insects, crustaceans, fungi, plants, helminths, bacteria), in the lab and in the field.

    Currently, my scientific activity rests on three axes: first I do theoretical work (theoretical population genetics, statistics, and bioinformatics development). I am particularly interested currently on the evolution of gene expression (on sex chromosomes or in asexuals). Second, I work on small crustaceans Artemia and Daphnia. I’m particularly interested currently on sex-asex transitions, biotic interactions and adaptation to temperature. Third, I do experimental evolution on E. coli. I'm particularly interested on testing fitness landscape models, adaptation to different doses of antibiotics, and coevolution of species coexisting by frequency dependence.

    Research interests by keywords
    adaptation, local adaptation, migration, speciation, (sex) chromosomes, clines, sex, parthenogenesis, meiosis, recombination, epistasis, dominance, mutations, resistance, duplications, modifiers, mating systems, sexual conflicts, parasites, microbiota.

    XYmus alt popgen  alt
    coli daphnia  alt silene

    Brief CV

    Research director CNRS (DR1)
    HDR (2007)
    Ph.D Evolutionary Biology (1998)

    Radcliffe Fellow, Harvard Univ. (2017-2018)
    ERC "starting grant" (2007)
    Theodosius Dobzhansky Prize (Society for the Study of Evolution), 2000
    Young Investigator Prize (American Society of Naturalists), 2000

    ResearchGate, GoogleScholarAcademicTree


     

    alt Editor2012 - 2015
    alt Associate editor2005 - 2008
    alt Associate editor2004 - 2011
    alt Associate editor2003 - 2007

     


    Interested to join the lab?

    If you're interested by the research topics mentionned above, or related ones, do not hesitate to contact me to discuss possible internships, PhDs or postdocs.


    Preprints

    Molinier C, Lenormand T, Haag CR. 202X. No support for a meiosis suppressor in Daphnia pulex: Comparison of linkage maps reveals normal recombination in males of obligate parthenogenetic lineages. bioRxiv.

    Laroche F, Lenormand T. 202X. The genetic architecture of local adaptation in a cline. bioRxiv.

    Recent papers

    Lenormand T, Roze D. 2022. Y recombination arrest and degeneration in the absence of sexual dimorphism. Science,375:663-666. https://www.science.org/stoken/author-tokens/ST-327/full

    Muyle A, Marais GAB, Bačovský V, Hobza R, Lenormand T. 2022. Dosage compensation evolution in plants: theories, controversies and mechanisms. Philosophical Transactions B, in press

    Pais-Costa AJ, Lievens EJ, Redón S, Sánchez MI, Jabbour-Zahab R, Joncour P, Van Hoa N, Van Stappen G, Lenormand T. 2022. Strong transgenerational effects but no genetic adaptation in zooplankton 24 years after an abrupt+ 10° C climate change. bioRxiv. Evolution Letters in press.

    Rode NO, Jabbour-Zahab R, Boyer L, Flaven É, Hontoria F, Van Stappen G, Haag C, Lenormand T. 2022. The origin of asexual brine shrimps. Am. Nat. in press.

    Boyer L, R Zahab, M Mosna, C Haag, T Lenormand. 2021. Not so clonal asexuals: unraveling the secret sex life of Artemia parthenogenetica. Evolution Letters 5:164-174.

    Bestová H, Segrestin J, von Schwartzenberg K, Škaloud P, Lenormand T, Violle C. 2021. Biological scaling in green algae: the role of cell size and geometry. Scientific Reports 11: 1-9.

    Simion P, Narayan J, Houtain A, Derzelle A, Baudry L, Nicolas E,... and Van Doninck K. 2021. Chromosome-level genome assembly reveals homologous chromosomes and recombination in asexual rotifer Adineta vaga. Science advances, 7: eabg4216.

    Lenormand, T., Fyon, F., Sun, E., & Roze, D. 2020. Sex chromosome degeneration by regulatory evolution. Current Biology 30: 3001-3006.

    Lievens EJP, Y Michalakis, T Lenormand. 2020. Trait-specific trade-offs prevent niche expansion in two parasites. Recommended by PCI Evol Biol. JEB 33:1704-1714.

    Harmand N, V Federico, T Hindre, T Lenormand. 2019. Non-linear frequency-dependent selection promotes long-term coexistence between bacteria species. Ecology Letters 22, 1192-1202

    Lievens EJP, Rode NO, Landes J, Segard A, Jabbour-Zahab R, Michalakis Y, Lenormand T. 2019. Long-term prevalence data reveals spillover dynamics in a multi-host (Artemia), multi-parasite (Microsporidia) community. International Journal for Parasitology, 49, 471-480.

     

    Selected publications by topics

    Adaptation and mutation effects


    Bourguet, D., T. Lenormand, T. Guillemaud, V. Marcel, D. Fournier, and M. Raymond. 1997. Variation of dominance of newly arisen adaptive genes. Genetics 147:1225-1234.

    Chevin L.-M., G. Martin, T. Lenormand. 2010. Fisher’s model and the genomics of adaptation: restricted pleiotropy, heterogeneous mutation and parallel evolution. Evolution 64: 3213-3231PDF

    Gallet R., Latour Y., Bradley H., and T. Lenormand. 2014. The dynamics of niche evolution upon abrupt environmental change. Evolution 68:1257-1269

    Gallet R, Violle C, Fromin N, Jabbour-Zahab R, Enquist B, Lenormand T. 2017. The evolution of bacterial cell size: the internal diffusion-constraint hypothesis. ISME J. 11:1559-156

    Harmand N, Gallet R, Jabbour-Zahab R, Martin G, Lenormand T. 2016. Fisher’s geometrical model and the mutational patterns of antibiotic resistance across dose gradients. Evolution 71:23-37.

    Harmand N, Gallet R, Martin G, Lenormand T. 2018. Evolution of bacteria specialization along an antibiotic dose gradient.Evol.Let. in press.

    Jasmin J.-N., Lenormand T. 2016.Accelerating mutational load is not due to synergistic epistasis or mutator alleles in mutation accumulation lines of yeast. Genetics DOI115.182774

    Labbé, P., Sidos, N., Raymond, M., and Lenormand, T., 2009. Resistance Gene Replacement in the Mosquito Culex Pipiens: Fitness Estimation from Long Term Cline Series. Genetics 182:303-312PDF

    Lenormand, T., D. Roze, F. Rousset. 2009. Stochasticity in evolution. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 24: 157-165.PDF

    Lenormand T, Chevin LMC, Bataillon T. 2016. Parallel evolution : what does it (not) tell us and why is it (still) interesting? [Book chapter, in Chance in EvolutionRamsey G & C Pence Eds, Univ. Chicago Press]. 

    Lenormand, Nougué O, Jabbour-Zahab R, Arnaud F, Dezileau L, Chevin L.-M and Sánchez M. 2017 Resurrection Ecology in Artemia. Evol Appl. 11:76-87

    Lenormand T, Harmand N, Gallet R. Cost of resistance: an unreasonably expensive concept. bioRxiv.

    Manna F., Martin G., and T. Lenormand. 2011. Fitness landscape: an alternative theory for the dominance of mutations. Genetics 189:923-937.PDF.

    Manna F., Gallet R., Martin G., and T. Lenormand. 2012. The high throughput yeast deletion fitness data and the theories of dominance. JEB, 25:892-903.PDF.

    Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2006. A general multivariate extension of Fisher's geometrical model and the distribution of mutation fitness effects across species. Evolution 60:893-907. AwardedFisher Prize 2007, Best PhD paper published in Evolution in 2006.PDF

    Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2006. The fitness effect of mutations in stressful environments: a survey in the light of fitness landscape models. Evolution 60:2413-2427.PDF

    Martin, G., S.F. Elena and T. Lenormand. 2007. Distributions of epistasis in microbes fit predictions from a fitness landscape model. Nature Genetics 39:555-560.PDF

    Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2008. The distribution of beneficial and fixed mutation fitness effects close to an optimum. Genetics. 179: 907-916.PDF

    Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2015. The fitness effect of mutations across environments: Fisher's geometric model with multiple optima.Evolution 69:1433-1447

    Nougué O, Svendsen N, Zahab R, Lenormand T, Chevin LM. 2016.The ontogeny of tolerance curves : habitat quality versus acclimation in a stressful environment.J. Anim. Ecol. Doi 10.1111/1365-2656.12572.

    Local adaptation


    Alberto F., S. N. Aitken, R. Alía, S. C. González-Martínez, H. Hänninen, A. Kremer, F. Lefèvre, T. Lenormand, S. Yeaman, R. Whetten, O. Savolainen. 2013. Potential for evolutionary responses to climate change - evidence from tree populations. Global Change Biology doi: 10.1111/gcb.12181.

    Debarre F., Lenormand, T. and Gandon S. Evolutionary epidemiology of drug-resistance in space. 2009. PLoS Comp. Biol. 5:e1000337.PDF

    Debarre F.,and T. Lenormand. 2011.Distance-limited dispersal promotes coexistence at habitat boundaries: reconsidering the competitive exclusion principle. Ecology Letters, 14: 260-266PDF

    Epinat, G., and T. Lenormand. 2009. The evolution of assortative mating and selfing with in- and outbreeding depression. Evolution. 63: 2047-2060.PDF

    Gallet R, Latour Y, Hughes B S, Lenormand T. 2014. The dynamics of niche evolution upon abrupt environmental change. Evolution 68: 1257-1269

    Guillemaud, T., T. Lenormand, D. Bourguet, C. Chevillon, N. Pasteur, and M. Raymond. 1998. Evolution of resistance in Culex pipiens: Allele replacement and changing environment. Evolution 52:443-453.

    Labbe, P., T. Lenormand, and M. Raymond. 2005. On the worldwide spread of an insecticide resistance gene: a role for local selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 18:1471-1484.PDF

    Lenormand, T. 2002. Gene flow and the limits to natural selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17:183-189.PDF

    Lenormand, T., D. Bourguet, T. Guillemaud, and M. Raymond. 1999. Tracking the evolution of insecticide resistance in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Nature 400:861-864.PDF

    Lenormand, T., and M. Raymond. 1998. Resistance management: the stable zone strategy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 265:1985-1990.PDF

    Lenormand, T., and M. Raymond. 2000. Analysis of clines with variable selection and variable migration. American Naturalist 155:70-82.PDF

    Milesi P, Lenormand T., Lagneau C, Weill M, Labbé P. 2016. Relating Fitness to Long-term Environmental Variations in natura.Molecular Ecoloy 25:5483-5499.

    Gene duplication evolution


    Labbe, P., A. Berthomieu, C. Berticat, H. Alout, M. Raymond, T. Lenormand, and M. Weill. 2007. Independent duplications of the acetylcholinesterase gene conferring insecticide resistance in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24:1056-1067. PDF

    Lenormand, T., T. Guillemaud, D. Bourguet, and M. Raymond. 1998. Appearance and sweep of a gene duplication: Adaptive response and potential for new functions in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Evolution 52:1705-1712. PDF

    Labbé P., Milesi P., Yébakima A., Weill M., and T. Lenormand. 2014. Gene dosage effects on fitness in recent adaptive duplications : ace-1 in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Evolution 68: 2092-2101

    Labbe, P., C. Berticat, A. Berthomieu, S. Unal, C. Bernard, M. Weill and T. Lenormand. 2007. Forty years of erratic insecticide resistance evolution in the mosquito Culex pipiens. PLoS Genetics, 3:e205. PDF

    Milesi P, Weill M, Lenormand T., Labbé P. 2017. Heterogeneous gene duplications can be adaptive because they permanently associate overdominant alleles.Evolution Letters, in press

    Sex, recombination, life cycles


    Fyon F, Lenormand T. 2018. Cis-regulator runaway and divergence in asexuals. Evolution 10.1111/evo.13424

    Haag C, Theodosiou L, Zahab R, Lenormand T. 2017. Low recombination rates in sexual species and sex-asex transitions Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B. DOI: 10.1098/rstb. 2016-0461

    Lenormand T, Engelstädter J, Johnston SE, Wijnker E, Haag CR. 2016. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B, Doi 10.1098/rstb.2016.0001. alsohereon BiorXiv

    Lenormand, T. 2003. The evolution of sex dimorphism in recombination. Genetics 163:811-822.PDF

    Lenormand, T., and S. P. Otto. 2000. The evolution of recombination in a heterogeneous environment. Genetics 156:423-438.PDF

    Lenormand, T., and J. Dutheil. 2005. Recombination difference between sexes: A role for haploid selection.PLoS Biology 3:396-403. PDF

    Lenormand T, Roze D, Cheptou P-O, Maurice S. 2010. L'évolution du sexe: un carrefour pour la biologie évolutive. in Biologie évolutive.M. Raymond, F. Thomas, T. Lefèvre, Eds. DeBoeck.
    Everything you ever wanted to know about sex, but in French

    Lievens EJP, Henriques GJB, Michalakis Y, Lenormand T. 2016.Maladaptive sex ratio adjustment in the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Curr Biol. 26:1463–1467

    Martin, G., S. P. Otto, and T. Lenormand. 2006. Selection for recombination in structured populations. Genetics 172:593-609.PDF

    Mollion M, Ehlers BK, Figuet E, Santoni S, Lenormand T, Maurice S, Galtier N, Bataillon T. 2017.Patterns of genome-wide nucleotide diversity in the gynodioecious plant Thymus vulgaris are compatible with recent sweeps of cytoplasmic genes. Genome biology and evolution 10:239-248

    Nougué O, Flaven E, Jabbour-Zahab R, Rode N O, Dubois M-P, Lenormand T. 2015. Characterization of nine new polymorphic microsatellite markers in Artemia parthenogenetica. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 58, 59-63

    Nougué O, Rode NO, Jabbour Zahab R, Ségard A, Chevin LMC, Haag C, Lenormand T. 2015. Automixis in Artemia: solving a century old controversy. J. Evol. Biol. 28:2337-2348

    Otto, S. P., and T. Lenormand. 2002. Resolving the paradox of sex and recombination. Nature Reviews Genetics 3:252-261.PDF

    Rescan M, Lenormand T, Roze D. 2016. Interaction between genetic and ecological effects on the evolution of life cycles. American Naturalist 187: 19-34

    Roze, D., and T. Lenormand. 2005. Self-fertilization and the evolution of recombination. Genetics 170:841-857.PDF

    Henry, P. Y., L. Vimond, T. Lenormand, and P. Jarne. 2006. Is delayed selfing adjusted to chemical cues of density in the freshwater snail Physa acuta? Oikos 112:448-455.PDF

    Svendsen N, Reisser CMO, Dukić M, Thuillier V, Ségard A, Liautard-Haag C, Fasel D, Hürlimann E, Lenormand T, Galimov Y and Haag CR. 2015. Uncovering Cryptic Asexuality in Daphnia magna by RAD-Sequencing. Genetics 201:1143-1155

    Speciation


    Bierne, N., T. Lenormand, F. Bonhomme, and P. David. 2002. Deleterious mutations in a hybrid zone: can mutational load decrease the barrier to gene flow? Genetical Research 80:197-204.PDF

    Chevin, L.-M., Decorzent G., T. Lenormand. 2014. Niche dimensionality and the genetics of ecological speciation. Evolution 68:1244-1256

    Fel-Clair, F., J. Catalan, T. Lenormand, and J. Britton-Davidian. 1998. Centromeric incompatibilities in the hybrid zone between house mouse subspecies from Denmark: Evidence from patterns of NOR activity. Evolution 52:592-603.

    Fel-Clair, F., T. Lenormand, J. Catalan, J. Grobert, A. Orth, P. Boursot, M. C. Viroux, and J. BrittonDavidian. 1996. Genomic incompatibilities in the hybrid zone between house mice in Denmark: Evidence from steep and non-coincident chromosomal clines for Robertsonian fusions. Genetical Research 67:123-134.

    Ganem, G, C. Litel, and T. Lenormand. 2008. Variation in mate preference across a house mouse hybrid zone. Heredity. 6:594-601PDF

    Gay, L., P. Crochet, D. Bell, and T. Lenormand. 2008. Comparing genetic and phenotypic clines in hybrid zones: a window on tension zone models. Evolution 62: 2789-2806PDF

    Lenormand T. 2012. From local adaptation to speciation: specialization and reinforcement. International Journal of Ecology. Ecological speciation (special issue) article ID 508458.PDF

    Lenormand, T., F. FelClair, K. Manolakou, P. Alibert, and J. BrittonDavidian. 1997. Chromosomal transmission bias in laboratory hybrids between wild strains of the two European subspecies of house mice.Genetics 147:1279-1287. PDF

    Dispersal


    Billiard, S., and T. Lenormand. 2005. Evolution of migration under kin selection and local adaptation. Evolution 59:13-23. PDF

    Lenormand, T., T. Guillemaud, D. Bourguet, and M. Raymond. 1998. Evaluating gene flow using selected markers: A case study. Genetics 149:1383-1392. PDF

    Rieux A, Lenormand T., Carlier J., de Lapeyre de Bellaire L., Ravigne V. 2013 Using neutral cline decay to estimate contemporary dispersal: a generic tool and its application to a major crop pathogen.Ecology Letters 16 :721-730

    Genetic conflicts


    Autran D, Baroux C, Raissig MT, Lenormand T, Wittig M, Grob S, Steimer A, Barann M, Klostermeir UC, Leblanc O, Vielle-Calzada JP, Rosenstiel P, Grimanelli D, Grossniklaus U. 2011.Maternal epigenetic pathways control parental contributions to Arabidopsisearly embryogenesis. Cell 145: 707-719.PDF

    Cailleau A., P.-O. Cheptou, T. Lenormand. 2010. Ploidy and the evolution of endosperm of flowering plants. Genetics 184:439-453.PDF

    Cailleau A, Grimanelli D, Cheptou P-O, Lenormand T. 2018. Dividing a maternal pie among half-sibs: genetic conflicts and the control of resource allocation to seeds in maize. Am. Nat. in press.

    Fyon F., Cailleau A., Lenormand T. 2015. Enhancer runaway and the Evolution of diploid gene expression.PLoS Genet. DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005665.

    Rode N., Charmantier A., Lenormand T. 2011.Male-female coevolution in the wild : evidence from a time series inArtemia franciscana. Evolution 65:2881-2892.PDF
    On the web See a great summary by Carl Zimmer
    here or in Wiredhere.

    Biotic interactions


    Ehlers B., David P., Damgaard C.F., Lenormand T. 2016. Competitor relatedness, indirect soil effects, and plant co-existence. Journal of Ecology 104: 1134-1135

    Gallet, R., T. Lenormand and I.-N. Wang, 2012 Phenotypic stochasticity prevents lytic bacteriophage population from extinction during bacterial stationary phase. Evolution 66: 3485-3494.PDF

    Lievens EJP, Rode NO, Landes J, Segard A, Jabbour-Zahab R, Michalakis Y, Lenormand T. 2018. Long-term prevalence data reveals spillover dynamics in a multi-host (Artemia), multi-parasite (Microsporidia) community. bioRxiv 248542.

    Lievens EJP, Perreau JMA, Agnew P, Michalakis Y, Lenormand T. 2018. Decomposing parasite fitness in a two-host, two-parasite system reveals the underpinnings of parasite specialization. bioRxiv 256974.

    Nougué O, Gallet R, Chevin LMC, Lenormand T. 2015.Niche Limits of Symbiotic Gut Microbiota Constrain the Salinity Tolerance of Brine Shrimp. American Naturalist 186:390-403
    Microbiota impact the niche and an extended definition of realized niches

    Rode N.O., Lievens EJP, Flaven E., Segard A., Jabbour-Zahab R., Sanchez M, Lenormand T. 2013. Why join groups? Lessons from parasite-manipulated Artemia. Ecology Letters 16:493-501.PDF
    On the web:
    Parasites Make Their Hosts Sociable So They Get Eaten. Ed Yong's National Geographic Blog

    Rode N.O., Landes J., Lievens E.J.P., Flaven E., Segard A., Jabbour-Zahab R., Michalakis Y., Agnew P., Vivares C., Lenormand T. 2013. Cytological, molecular and life cycle characterization of Anostracospora rigaudi n. g., n. sp. and Enterocytospora artemiae n. g., n. sp., two new microsporidian parasites infecting gut tissues of the brine shrimp Artemia.Parasitology 140:1168-1185

    Sánchez M.I., N.O. Rode, E. Flaven, S. Redón, F. Amat, G.P. Vasileva, T. Lenormand.2012. Differential susceptibility to parasites of invasive and native species of Artemia living in sympatry: consequences for the invasion ofA. franciscana in the Mediterranean Region. Biological Invasion, 14:1819-1829.PDF

    Sanchez M., Pons I., Martinez-Haro M., Taggart M.A., Lenormand T., Green A. 2016. When parasites are good for health: cestode parasitism increases resistance to arsenic in brine shrimps. PLoS PathogensDOIe1005459

    Vasileva G.P., Redon S., Amat F., Nikolov P.N., Sanchez M., Lenormand T., Georgiev B.B. 2009 Records of cysticercoids of Fimbriarioides tadornae (Maksimova, 1976) and Branchiopodataenia gvozdevi (Maksimova, 1988) (Cyclophyllidea, Hymenolepididae) from brine shrimps at the Mediterraneancoasts of Spain and France, with a key to cestodes from Artemia spp. from the Western Mediterranean.Acta Parasitologica 54: 143-150. PDF

    Fitness


    Gallet R., Cooper T., Elena S.F., T. Lenormand. 2012. Measuring selection coefficients below 10-3 : method, questions and prospects. Genetics, 190:175-186.PDF
    Over 150 millions phenotypes scored, one of the most precise measure of selection ever made and the questions it raises

    Gimenez O., R. Covas, C. Brown, M. Anderson, M. Bomberger Brown, and T. Lenormand. 2006. Nonparametric estimation of natural selection on a quantitative trait using capture-mark-recapture data. Evolution 60:460-466.PDF

    Gimenez O., Gregoire A., Lenormand T. 2009. Estimating and visualizing fitness surfaces using mark-recapture data.Evolution. 63: 3097-3105.

    Lenormand T, Rode NO, Chevin LMC, Rousset F. 2016. Valeur sélective: définitions, enjeux et mesures. in Biologie évolutive 2nd edition.M. Raymond, F. Thomas, T. Lefèvre, Eds. DeBoeck.
    Everything you ever wanted to know about fitness, but in French

     


     

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    Download CFit : a stand-alone package to fit clines

     

     

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