vendredi 29 novembre 2019 - 11h30 Grand salle réunion du CEFE
The loss and fragmentation of natural habitats is a major threat to biodiversity. Faced with this threat, spatial planning for conservation and human activities is a major challenge. But planning is often synonymous with freezing, though territories and biodiversity are not static. It is therefore crucial to take into account the spatial dynamics of territories and the spatial dynamics of biodiversity in land planning in order to reconcile planning and conservation, which is still too little done (Schiesari et al. 2018). On the one hand, conservation operates in a changing world, whether in terms of territorial dynamics and land use changes, or in terms of adaptation (of people and biodiversity) to climate change. A dynamic approach, based on scenarios of possible territorial evolution, makes it possible to place conservation issues in time and space, in particular by combining these scenarios with modelling and spatial prioritization (Doxa et al. 2017; Albert et al. 2017). On the other hand, conservation operates for a changing biodiversity. However, the links between the ecology of movement and the conservation of connectivity remain tenuous. In particular, the role of landscape matrix and its resistance to the movement of organisms remains poorly understood (Martin-Queller et al. 2017; Brudvig et al. 2017). But also the transition from understanding the movement of an individual in a landscape to understanding potential flows between habitat areas remains difficult; this makes conservation approaches based on graph theory only unproven assumptions. Finally, while the articulation of territorial and biodiversity dynamics for conservation remains a research question, it also raises many questions about possible applications. Transferring our knowledge and the associated uncertainties to managers is a priority. Recent publications:1 Albert CH, Rayfield B., Dumitru M. & Gonzalez A. (2017) Applying network theory to prioritize multi-species habitat networks that are robust to climate and land-use change. Conservation Biology, 31 (6), 1383–1396 2 Brudvig LA, Leroux SJ, Albert CH, Bruna EM, Davies KF, Ewers RM, Levey DJ, Pardini R & Resasco J (2017) Evaluating conceptual models of landscape change. Ecography, ’Fragmentation Special Issue’, 40 (1), 74-84 3 Doxa A, Albert CH, Leriche A & A Saatkamp (2017) Prioritizing areas for the conservation of coastal biodiversity under high urbanization pressure, Journal of Environmental Management, 201, 425-4344 Martín Queller E, Albert CH, Dumas P-J & A Saatkamp (2017) Islands, mainland and terrestrial fragments: how does isolation shape plant diversity? Ecology & Evolution, 7 (17), 6904–6917 5 Schiesari L. et al. (2018) The why, when and how of applied metaecology; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/422501
Spring temperatures are increasing due to climate change and this has had profound effects on the spring phenology of many organisms. These shifts in phenology however vary substantially among species, with predatory species shifting only at half the rate as their prey. This leads to so-called phenological mismatches: the phenology of predators and their prey get out of synchrony. I will give an overview of these mismatches, the evolutionary consequences and the population consequences using data from our long-term study (1955-present) on a small song bird, the great tit (Parus major). I will present data of birds, caterpillars and trees illustrating that to understand patterns of selection on the phenology we need to take the phenology of the entire food chain into account. Next, I will focus on the potential for genetic change in phenology. We study the genetics and physiology underlying phenology by creating selection lines of early and late reproducing great tits, using genomic selection. We breed selection lines birds under controlled conditions and look at their lay dates as well as at RNA expression and DNA methylation. Finally, we introduced selection line eggs into our wild population to measure their fitness. I will end with discussing how phenological mismatches have knock-on effects at the population level.
Verhagen, I., P. Gienapp, V.N. Laine, A.C. Mateman, K. van Oers & M.E. Visser (2019) Genetic and phenotypic responses to genomic selection for timing of breeding in a wild songbird Funct Ecol 33: 1708-1721
Gienapp, P., M.P.L. Calus, V.N. Laine & M.E. Visser (2019) Genomic selection on breeding time in a wild bird population Evol Lett 3: 142–151
Visser, M.E. & P. Gienapp (2019) Evolutionary and demographic consequences of phenological mismatches Nature Ecol Evol 3: 879-885
Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution - Montpellier, France
vendredi 8 novembre 2019 - 11h30 Grand salle réunion du CEFE, 1919 route de Mende
The domestication of plants and animals marks a major transition in human history and a key element in the development of modern societies. On the other hand, domestication can be seen as the longest lasting experiment of artificial selection. Domestication studies are therefore at the cross-road between evolutionary biology and archaeology. I will present how modern and archaeological specimens can help understand the long, continuous and still ongoing history of domestic populations especially in pigs (Sus scrofa). I will demonstrate the benefits of integrative approaches combining phenotypic analyses using geometric morphometrics with other methodologies such as ancient DNA or isotopic analyses
1) Frantz, L. (+96 co-authors), Evin A, Girdland-Flink L,Lardon G. et al. (2019). Ancient pigs reveal a near-complete genomic turnover following their introduction to Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(35), 201901169. doi:10.1073/pnas.1901169116.
2) Evin A., Owen J., Larson G., Debiais-Thibaud M., Cucchi T., Strand Vidarsdottir U., and Dobney K. 2017. A Test for Paedomorphism in Domestic Pig Cranial Morphology. Biology Letters 13: 20170321.
3) Price M. and Evin A. 2017. Long-Term Morphological Changes and Evolving Human-Pig Relations in the Northern Fertile Crescent from 11,000 to 2000 Cal. BC. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. doi:10.1007/s12520-017-0536-z.
4) Evin A., Dobney K., Schafberg R., Owen J., Vidarsdottir U., Larson G., Cucchi T. 2015. Phenotype and Animal Domestication: A Study of Dental Variation between Domestic, Wild, Captive, Hybrid and Insular Sus Scrofa. BMC Evolutionary Biology 15, 1:6.
5) Evin A., Girdland Flink L., Bălăşescu A., Popovici D., Andreescu R., Bailey D., Mirea P., Lazar C., Boroneant A., Bonsall C., Strand Vidarsdottir U., Brehard S., Tresset A., Cucchi T., Larson G., Dobney K. 2015. Unravelling the Complexity of Domestication: A Case Study Using Morphometrics and Ancient DNA Analyses of Archaeological Pigs from Romania. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 370(1660): 20130616–20130616.
Convergent adaptation provides unique insights into the predictability of evolution and ultimately into processes of biological diversification. Supergenes (beneficial gene linkage) are striking examples of adaptation. We show that anther-smut fungi evolved supergene formation by rearrangements linking two key mating-type loci, thus increasing the odds of gamete compatibility under selfing. High-quality genome assemblies revealed six independent cases of chromosomal rearrangements leading to regions of suppressed recombination linking these mating-type loci in closely related species. Such convergent transitions in genomic architecture of mating-type determination indicate strong selection favoring linkage of mating-type loci into cosegregating supergenes. We further found independent evolutionary strata (stepwise extension of recombination suppression) in several species, despite the lack of sexual antagonism in these isogamous fungi. Sexual antagonism is the most commonly accepted evolutionary theory for the existence of stepwise extension of recombination suppression in sex chromosomes, but our findings show that other mechanisms can generate evolutionary strata.
1 Branco S, Badouin H, Rodriguez de la Vega R, Gouzy J, Carpentier F, Aguileta G, Siguenza S, Brandenburg JT, Coelho M, Hood ME, Giraud T (2017) Evolutionary strata on young mating-type chromosomes despite lack of sexual antagonism PNAS. 114: 7067–7072.
2 Branco S, Carpentier F, Rodriguez de la Vega R, Badouin H, Snirc A, Le Prieur S, Coelho M, de Vienne D.M., Hartmann F, Begerow D, Hood ME, Giraud T (2018) Multiple convergent supergene evolution events in mating-type chromosomes. Nature Communications 9:2000.
3 Bazzicalupo A, Carpentier F, Otto S and Giraud T (2019) No evidence of antagonistic selection in the evolutionary strata of fungal mating-type chromosomes (Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae) G3 9: 1987-1998.
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Trondheim) & University of Aberdeen
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