iCEPS Conference 2017

Améliorer la qualité des études interventionnelles non pharmacologiques

Le congrès iCEPS s’adresse à toute personne intéressée par les questions scientifiques, médicales, sociales, juridiques et éthiques posées par les interventions non médicamenteuses (INM). Il rassemble des professionnels et des chercheurs issus de de différentes disciplines, des sciences biologiques aux sciences humaines et sociales, de l’épidémiologie à la santé publique, de la médecine à l’éthique, des sciences de l’ingénieur aux sciences mathématiques, des sciences économiques aux sciences juridiques. Ses quatre précédentes éditions ont réuni plus de 2000 participants de tous les continents. Programme

Comité d’Organisation

Sylvain Agier, Simon Bacon, Jean Bilard, Isabelle Boulze, Gérard Bourrel, Denis Brouillet, Monica Cappellini, François Carbonnel, Arnaud Castelltort, Michel David, Mario Fernandez, Adeline Gomez, Aurélie Gerazime, Estelle Guerdoux-Ninot, Vanessa Guillaumon, Aline Herbinet, Guillaume Lacoste, Stéphane Adam, François Alla, Antoine Avignon, Simon Bacon, Marie Baqué-Juston, Vickie Baracos, Pierre-Louis Bernard, Claudine Berr, Hubert Blain, Franck Bonnetain, Isabelle Boulze, Jean Bourbeau, Gérard Bourrel, Jean Bousquet, Denis Brouillet, Linda Cambon,
Anne-Sophie Cases-Lacour, Arnaud Castelltort, Susan Czajkowski, Amélie Darlix, Fabienne D’Arripe-Longueville, Michel David, Cyrille Delpierre, Gérard Dray, Béatrice Fervers, Francoise Fons, Ken Freedland, Christophe Gernigon, Isabelle Gremy, Estelle Guerdoux-Ninot, Vanessa Guillaumon, Thibaut Guiraud, Maurice Hayot, Anne Laurent, Kim Lavoie, Sophie Martin, Susan Michie, Jacques Mercier, Paul Montgomery, Grégory Moullec, Grégory Ninot, Patrick Poucheret, Lynda Powell, Jean-Louis Pujol, Xavier Quantin, Sylvie Rapior, Lise Rochaix, Hélène
Sancho-Garnier, Pierre Senesse, Daniel Serin, Anne Stoebner-Delbarre, Raphaël Trouillet, Anne Vuillemin. Michel Launay, Anne Laurent, Kim Lavoie, Béatrice Lognos, Cécile Maestracci, Francis Maffre, Jérôme Maitre, Sophie Martin, Jeanne Michaux, Laurent Munilla, Grégory Ninot, Patrick Poucheret, Jean-Louis Pujol, Xavier Quantin, Sylvie Rapior, Thierry Rousset, Raphaël Trouillet, Alain Warnery.

Bacterial endosymbionts and the evolution of host sex determination mechanisms

Richard Cordaux

UMR 7267, CNRS, Poitiers

Le vendredi 28 avril 2017 - 11h30 Grande Salle CEFE (1919 Rte de Mende, 1e étage, aille C)

 

(Seminar in English)

In animals, sex differences between males and females are generally determined by genetic factors carried by sex chromosomes. Sex chromosomes are remarkably variable in origin and they can differ even between closely related species, indicating that transitions occur frequently and independently in different groups of organisms. However, the evolutionary causes underlying sex chromosome turnovers are poorly known. I will present results supporting that genetic elements distorting host sex ratio can be powerful agents of transitions between sex determination mechanisms.

In the common pillbug Armadillidium vulgare, chromosomal sex determination follows female heterogamety (ZZ males and ZW females). However, many A. vulgare populations harbor maternally-inherited Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts which can convert genetic males into phenotypic females, leading to populations with female-biased sex ratios. Wolbachia can drive shifts in sex determination mechanisms in A. vulgare in several ways, such as direct incorporation of its genome in the pillbug nuclear genome. Our analyses indicate that the pillbug chromosome carrying a Wolbachia insert termed "f element" evolved as a new W sex chromosome. Overall, our results emphasize that bacterial endosymbionts can be powerful sources of evolutionary novelty for fundamental biological processes in animals, such as sex determination.

Recent publications:

Leclercq S. et al. (2016) Birth of a W sex chromosome by horizontal transfer of Wolbachia bacterial symbiont genome. PNAS. 113: 15036–15041.

Cordaux R. et al. (2011) The impact of endosymbionts on the evolution of host sex-determination mechanisms. Trends Genet. 27: 332-341.

 

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Ecological consequences of phenological mismatches between pollinators and their floral resources

Diego Vazquez

Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas, CONICET

Le vendredi 21 avril 2017 - 11h30 Grande Salle CEFE (1919 Rte de Mende, 1e étage, aille C)

Argentina Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UN Cuyo, Argentina
Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Freiburg, Germany

(Seminar in English)

Periodic events in the life cycle of organisms (phenology) can vary in time and space in response to changes in their environment. Different species respond idiosyncratically to environmental variation, leading to phenologial mismatches among interacting species. I will discuss my ongoing research on the demographic consequences of phenological mismatches for solitary bees: how nesting too early or too late in the breeding season may mean fewer floral resources (food and nest-building materials) and eventually poorer reproduction. I will show evidence that the reproductive performance of specialist bees tends to be lower in years of stronger nesting-flowering mismatches. I will also assess how these demographic effects vary geographically. I will end with a discussion of the implications of these results for our understanding of the ecological consequences of climate change.

Recent publications:

Vázquez DP, Gianoli E, Morris WF, Bozinovic F. (2015) Ecological and evolutionary impacts of chaning climatic variability. Biological Reviews, in press

Vázquez DP, Ramos-Jiliberto R, Urbani P, Valdovinos FS (2015) A conceptual framework for studying the strength of plant-animal mutualistic interactions. Ecology Letters 18: 385-400

Dorado J, Vázquez DP (2014) The diversity-stability relationship in floral resources. Oikos 123: 1137-1143

Vázquez DP, Lomáscolo SB, Maldonado MB, Chacoff NP, Dorado J, Stevani EL, Vitale NL (2012) The strength of plant-pollinator interactions. Ecology 93: 719-725

 

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Les mammifères vivent en majorité plus longtemps en captivité

17 mars 2017

Les mammiferes

© DR.

Il est couramment admis que les animaux vivent plus longtemps en captivité qu'à l'état sauvage. Famine, conditions climatiques extrêmes, prédation et compétition intra- et interspécifiques… les risques de mortalité prématurée dans la nature sont élevés. Pour autant, les rares études menées jusqu'à présent ne permettaient qu'une vision parcellaire, car elles se concentraient sur une espèce en particulier. Les récents travaux d’une équipe européenne composée de plusieurs chercheurs CNRS, publiés dans la revue Scientific Reports, sont les premiers réalisés à large échelle. Portant sur 59 espèces de mammifères répartis en 8 ordres (Artiodactyles, Périssodactyles, Carnivores, Primates, Lagomorphes, Rongeurs, Diprotodontes et Scandentiens), ils viennent confirmer que l'espérance de vie est supérieure en zoo pour 84 % des espèces de mammifères étudiées. En savoir plus

Journée Développement Durable et Responsabilité Sociétale

colloque

Cette première journée destinée aux communautés universitaires et au grand public présente l'implication des établissements de l'ESR dans la lutte contre les changements climatiques ; y participent le CEFE et ArtDev. Rendez-vous le 27 avril à 9h sur le campus de l'université Paul Valéry à Montpellier. En savoir plus

Illustration © DR.

 

Ancient DNA reveals the genomic footprints of Stone-Age Europeans

Mattias Jakobsson

Uppsala University, Sweeden

Le vendredi 31 mars 2017 - 11h30 Grande Salle CEFE (1919 Rte de Mende, 1e étage, aille C)

Genomic information from ancient human remains is beginning to show its full potential for learning about human prehistory. I review the last few years’ dramatic finds about European prehistory based on genomic data from humans that lived many millennia ago and relate it to modern-day patterns of genomic variation. The early times, the upper Paleolithic, appears to contain several population turn-overs followed by more stable populations after the Last Glacial Maximum and during the Mesolithic. Some 11,000 years ago the migrations driving the Neolithic transition start from around Anatolia and reach the  north and the west of Europe millennia later. This event is followed by major migrations during the Bronze age. These findings show that culture and lifestyle were major determinants of genomic differentiation and similarity in pre-historic Europe rather than geography as is the case today.

Recent publications:

Goldberg et al. (2016) Familial migration of the Neolithic contrasts massive male migration during Bronze Age in Europe inferred from ancient X chromosomes. BioRxiv. doi:10.1101/078360

Günther & Jakobsson (2016) Genes mirror migrations and cultures in prehistoric Europe — a population genomic perspective. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 41: 115–123.

Günther et al. (2015) Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques. PNAS 38: 11917–11922.

Skoglund et al. (2014) Genomic Diversity and Admixture Differs for Stone-Age Scandinavian Foragers and Farmers. Science 344: 747-750

 

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Post-doc : Plant disease monitoring in crowdsourced image streams

18 months in Montpellier

Joint call for post-doctoral fellowships: labex (Agropolis, NUMEV, CEMEB) and IC #DigitAg

Project summary:

One of the major difficulty encountered in plant disease epidemiology is the lack of occurrence data. Large-scale and sustainable monitoring efforts are penalized by the lack of experts and the difficulty of diagnosing plant diseases for non-experts. In this context, crowdsourcing plant observation tools (such as Pl@ntNet) could serve as a brave new monitoring methodology. Even if non-healthy plants remain a relatively rare event in such high-throughput image data stream, the number of occurrences might be sufficiently high for several monitoring scenarios. Now, automatically recognizing plant diseases in such crowdsourced image streams is a challenging computer vision problem because of the scarcity of the training data, the low inter-class variability and the rarity of the events. The original approach that we propose to solve these issues is to rely on transfer learning and pro-active learning solutions as a way to set up an innovative and participatory citizen sciences program.

 Context:

The candidate will closely work with the interdisciplinary team at the origin of the awarded Pl@ntNet platform. She/he will benefit from a privileged scientific context at the intersection of ecology, agronomy and computer sciences and participatory action research methodologies. The selected candidate must start between September 2017 and December 2017, for a duration of 18 months. The candidate will work on the evaluation and experimentation of automated visual data analysis, in the aim to evaluate the potential of automatically recognizing plant diseases in crowdsourcing context.

Candidate profile:

We are looking for a highly motivated postdoctoral fellow in the field of data sciences or bio-informatics with some experience in machine learning and/or computer vision. Curiosity, open-mind, creativity, persistence, and collaborative-work ability are the key personal skills we target. A Ph.D. in computer science, bioinformatics or applied mathematics, is required, with demonstrated experience and a high quality publication record. The successful candidate should have programming skills in Python, Java or C++. A strong interest in collaborative and interdisciplinary research is required. Both beginning and more senior postdoctoral candidates are encouraged to apply.

 Criteria of eligibility:

The candidate should have obtained his PhD during the last 6 years. He should not have completed his PhD in a unit of the 3 following Labex (Cemeb: http://www.labex-cemeb.org/umr ; Agro : http://www.agropolis-fondation.fr/fr/labex-agro-developpement-durable/un-reseau-scientifique-de-premier-rang-mondial.html ; Numev : http://www.lirmm.fr/numev/index.php/lab-partners). If this is not a first postdoctoral, the candidate should do not have more than 1 year of post-doc in France over the last 3 years.

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Le  projet de post Doc Planthealth a été sélectionné dans la cadre de l’AAP commun inter labex (Agro-Cemeb-Numve) auquel s’est associé l’Institut de Convergence #DigitAg.