L’Oreme fête ses 10 ans !

 
De la forêt de Puéchabon aux posidonies de Méditerranée, des mésanges de nos régions aux babouins chacma de Namibie, des anciennes mines du Gard aux karsts d’Occitanie, l’Oreme vous convie à une journée de découvertes autour de ses activités le vendredi 11 octobre à l’Institut de Botanique de Montpellier.
Nous aurons également l’honneur d’accueillir Françoise Vimeux, chercheuse en climatologie, Virginie Maris, chercheuse en philosophie de l’environnement, ainsi que Philippe Lognonné, chercheur en planétologie et sciences spatiales.   
 
 
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Combinatorial ecology in the fruit fly gut microbiome

Will Ludington

Will Ludington

Department for Embryology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Baltimore, USA 

Le vendredi 27 septembre 2019 - 11h30 Grand salle réunion du CEFE, 1919 route de Mende

The gut microbiome is an ecosystem within an animal host that impacts health and disease in mysterious ways. Complex interactions between individual species produce unexpected results, often involving feedbacks with the host physiology. Discovering general principles of microbiome-host systems can benefit human health and also teach us about how groups of interacting organisms behave differently from their separate parts. To deconstruct this complexity, my lab develops the fruit fly gut microbiome as a model with its natural set of just five stably colonizing gut bacteria. We reconstruct this system combinatorially to ask how bacteria influence each other’s ability to colonize the gut and how these interactions influence physiology of the fly. We find that colonization ability of new species is strongly influenced by previous colonizers due both to spatial and metabolic interactions, which an example of a priority effect. These interactions also shape host fitness, altering the lifespan and reproduction of flies in a tradeoff, where shorter-lived individuals reproduce more. Overall, we find that the fly gut serves as an effective combinatorial model to dissect the gut microbiome-host complexity.

Recent publications:

  • Eble, H., Joswig, M., Lamberti, L., & Ludington, W. B. (2019). Cluster partitions and fitness landscapes of the Drosophila fly microbiome. Journal of Mathematical Biology, 1–39. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00285-019-01381-0
  • Aranda-Díaz, A., Obadia, B., Thomsen, T., Hallberg, Z. F., Guvener, Z. T., Huang, K. C., & Ludington, W. B. (2019). Bacterial interspecies interactions modulate pH-mediated antibiotic tolerance in a model gut microbiota: Supplemental Information. bioRxiv, 1–66. http://doi.org/10.1101/538132
  • Gould, A. L., Zhang, V., Lamberti, L., Jones, E. W., Obadia, B., Korasidis, N., et al. (2018). Microbiome interactions shape host fitness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 6, 201809349. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1809349115
  • Obadia, B., Güvener, Z. T., Zhang, V., Ceja-Navarro, J. A., Brodie, E. L., Ja, W. W., & Ludington, W. B. (2017). Probabilistic Invasion Underlies Natural Gut Microbiome Stability. Current Biology : CB, 27(13), 1999–2006.e8. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.05.034

Contact: Samuel Alizon

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Evolutionary implications of genetic conflicts: evolu-tion of life-cycles, antagonistic co-evolutions and population control using gene drives

nicolas rode
 

Nicolas Rode

Biological Center for Population Management, Montpellier, France

Le vendredi 13 septembre 2019 - 11h30 Grand salle réunion du CEFE, 1919 route de Mende

Genetic conflicts represent a ubiquitous evolutionary phenomenon whereby some genetic elements possess a phenotypic effect that increases their own transmission at the expense of other genetic elements in the genome. These conflicts can be due to differences in transmission between different parts of a same genome (e.g. nucleo-cytoplasmic conflicts) or to divergent evolutionary interests among individuals of the same species (e.g. sexual conflicts between males and females). Recently, genetic conflicts have inspired new population control technics based on the release of individuals carrying synthetic selfish genetic elements (gene drives). Based on my past and current research, I will provide an overview of different types of genetic conflicts and show how they can shape the evolution of life-cycles or drive sexually antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. Finally, I will show how previous research on genetic conflicts can provide important insights into the various environmental risks associated with population control using gene drives.

Recent publications:

Rode N.O., Estoup A., Bourguet D., Courtier-Orgogozo V., Débarre F. 2019. Population management using gene drive: molecular design, models of spread dynamics and assessment of ecological risks. Conservation Genetics, 20: 671–690.

Clergeot P.-H., Rode N. O., Glémin S., Brandström-Durling M., Ihrmark K., & Olson Å. 2019. Estimating the fitness effect of deleterious mutations during the two phases of the life cycle: a new method applied to the root-rot fungus Heterobasidion parviporum. Genetics, 211: 963-976.

Rode N.O., Soroye P., Kassen R., Rundle H.D. 2017. Air-borne genotype by genotype indirect genetic effects are substantial in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Heredity, 119: 1-7.

Rode N.O., Charmantier A. & Lenormand T. 2011. Male-female coevolution in the wild: evidence from a time series in Artemia franciscana. Evolution, 65: 2881-2892.

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Séminaire : Mesures de réduction de la Mortalité Aviaire dans les Parcs éoliens en Exploitation (MAPE)

Maison des Sciences de l'Homme Sud (MSH Sud) à Montpellier

Ce séminaire s'inscrit dans le processus de concertation mis en œuvre au sein de l'interface sciences-société de la MSH Sud, en partenariat avec la DREAL Occitanie, la LPO Hérault, l'ADEME, l'AFB, l'Unité Mixte de Recherche CEFE et le labex Cemeb, sur la problématique complexe de la réduction de la mortalité aviaire dans les parcs éoliens en exploitation. Il vise à co-construire avec l'ensemble des parties prenantes concernées un projet de recherche qui débuterait en 2020. Il fait suite au séminaire de lancement du 23 novembre 2018, qui a permis de présenter la dynamique, partager les attentes et les connaissances des différents acteurs, et enfin identifier les leviers et les freins pour la réalisation de ce projet de recherche (compte-rendu en pj).

Les objectifs de ce second séminaire sont :

  • Informer des avancées de la dynamique
  • Recueillir les réactions et les suggestions des participants sur le projet de recherche "martyr" imaginé par la recherche (UMR CEFE, Montpellier) suite au séminaire de lancement
  • Discuter des conditions de réalisation du projet (techniques, organisationnelles et financières) et avancer dans la négociation de ces conditions

Les horaires et le programme précis vous seront communiqués début septembre mais vous pouvez d'ores et déjà noter la date dans votre agenda. 

Dates de l’événement : 26 septembre 2019
Adresse de l’événement : Maison des Sciences de l'Homme Sud

Merci de confirmer votre participation via le lien d'inscription ici.

Contact : Raphaëlle Anginot et le Comité de pilotage du projet MAPE

120 Million Years of Tropical Forest Evolution

Carlos Jaramillo

Carlos Jaramillo 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama

Le vendredi 20 septembre 2019 - 11h30 Grand salle réunion du CEFE, 1919 route de Mende

The origin and development of Neotropical biomes are central to our understanding of extant ecosystems and our ability to predict their future.  During the Cretaceous, biomass of tropical rainforests was mostly dominated by gymnosperms and ferns, forest structure was poorly stratified and the canopy was open and dominated by gymnosperms.  Extant tropical rainforests first developed at the onset of the Cenozoic, as a result of the massive extinction of the Cretaceous-Paleocene boundary.  Paleocene rainforests were multistratified, with an angiosperm-dominated canopy that had high photosynthetic potential. Tropical climate has followed global patterns of warmings and coolings during the last 60 My. Rainforest diversity has increased during the warmings while it has decreased during coolings. Several extant biomes, including paramos, cloud forest, savannas, and dry/xerophytic forest, have developed significantly during the late Neogene at the expense of the reduction of the rainforest.  Timing and drivers of these changes are still unknown but they seem to be related to the onset of our modern, cool-state climate since the onset of the Pleistocene, 2.6 Ma ago.

Recent publications:

Jaramillo, C., 2018, Evolution of the Isthmus of Panama: biological, paleoceanographic, and paleoclimatological implications, in Hoorn, C., and Antonelli, A., eds., Mountains, Climate and Biodiversity: Oxford, John Wiley & Sons, p. 323-338.

Jaramillo, C., et al, 2017, Miocene Flooding Events of Western Amazonia: Science Advances, v. 3, p. e1601693.

Jaramillo, C. and Cardenas, A.  2013 Global Warming and Neotropical Rainforests: A historical perspective. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences 41: 741-766.

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Dispersal in space and time: consequences for phenotypes, fitness, and eco-evolutionary dynamics in marine systems

Jeffrey Shima

Jeffrey Shima

School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand 

Le vendredi 6 septembre 2019 - 11h30 Grand salle réunion du CEFE, 1919 route de Mende

Nearly all marine reef animals produce larvae that develop in open water and potentially disperse away from their natal reef. Hypotheses to account for this ubiquitous life-cycle have been proposed, and at best, these only tell part of the story.  I use forensic approaches to infer individual dispersal histories of fish from their otoliths, and I demonstrate some important demographic consequences of specific movement trajectories, environmental context, and reproductive timing. I present recent insights from of our work on three species: the common triplefin (a rocky reef fish found throughout New Zealand), inanga (an amphidromous fish and the primary constituent of New Zealand’s whitebait fishery), and the sixbar wrasse (a reef fish found on coral reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia).   I describe our emerging interests in eco-evolutionary dynamics, and present a novel hypothesis stemming from our work on dispersal-related processes, which may help to explain the repeated evolution of bi-partite life cycles in the sea.

Recent publications:

Shima, J.S., E.G. Noonburg,  S.E. Swearer, S.A. Alonzo, and C.W. Osenberg (2018) Born at the right time? A conceptual framework linking reproduction, development, and settlement in reef fish. Ecology 99: 116-126.

Shima, J.S. and S.E. Swearer (2016) Evidence and population consequences of shared larval dispersal histories in a marine fish. Ecology 97: 1373–1380.

Shima, J.S., E.G. Noonburg, and S.E. Swearer (2015) Consequences of variable larval dispersal pathways and resulting phenotypic mixtures to the dynamics of marine metapopulations. Biology Letters 11:20140778.

Shima, J.S. and S.E. Swearer (2010) The legacy of dispersal: larval experience shapes persistence later in the life of a reef fish. Journal of Animal Ecology 79:1308-1314.

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