Archives Thèses, HDR

Avis de Soutenance
Charlotte ROEMER

Soutiendra publiquement ses travaux de thèse intitulés
Bat movement ecology at the local scale and anthropogenic collision risks

Soutenance prévue le mercredi 14 novembre à 14h
Lieu : Grande salle du CEFE

In the Anthropocene, new sources of animal mortalities appeared consequently to the development of fast transport infra-structures (e.g. roads) and wind turbines. Collisions with these fast-moving objects are a high concern, especially for bats which survival relies on low mortality rates. To prevent these collisions, the siting of these infrastructures must be carefully thought. Insectivorous bats use echolocation to sense their environment and their preys, and their movements are tightly linked to the landscape structures that they use for orientation. Yet, knowledge about the influence of landscape on bat movements, and thus bat collision risks, is scarce. The main objective of this thesis was to enhance the understanding of the influence of landscape on bat movements, with the final aim of highlighting landscapes leading to high collision risks at roads and wind turbines.

First, the association between bat traits and their ability to forage and commute in elevated altitudes above ground was demonstrated.  The second study shows that this vertical partitioning exposes some species more than others to collision risks at wind turbines. For this, the first species-specific index of bat susceptibility to wind turbine collisions calculated from empirical data was created.

Thereafter, the third and fourth studies investigated the landscape factors influencing bat collision risks at secondary roads and wind turbines. One main goal was to determine how bat flight behaviour contributes to collision risks, independently of bat local density. Both studies showed a high influence of distance to trees on bat local density, but flight patterns meas-ured at roads responded more often to landscape variables than flight patterns measured at wind masts.

This thesis provides recommendations for the siting of secondary roads and wind turbines in function of landscape fea-tures. The behavioural measures realised in this thesis also enhanced the fundamental understanding of the links between bat movements and landscape features.

Keywords : road collisions; wind turbine collisions; acoustic flight path tracking; environmental impact assessment studies; bats

Membres du jury :

Prof. Fiona Mathews        Professeur, University of Sussex, Brighton, Royaume-Uni                                            Rapportrice
Dr. David Grémillet           Directeur de Recherche, CEFE - CNRS, Montpellier                                                    Rapporteur
Dr. Sylvie Vanpeene         Ingénieure chargée de recherche, INRA, Aix-en-Provence, France                                 Examinatrice
Prof. Romain Julliard        Directeur de Recherche, Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Paris, France                  Directeur de thèse
Dr. Aurélie Coulon            Maitre de Conférence, Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Paris, France,                    Directrice de thèse
Dr. Yves Bas                   Ingénieur chargé de recherche, Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Paris, France         Co-encadrant de thèse
M. Thierry Disca             Directeur d’études, Biotope, Mèze, France                                                                    Invité