Génétique et Ecologie Evolutive


altDirecteur de Recherche CNRS

Campus du CNRS
1919, route de Mende
34293 Montpellier 5
Tél : +33/0 4 67 61 32 91
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My primary research interests are evolutionary and ecological genetics. I have been doing theoretical work on the evolution of sex, mating systems, dispersal, recombination. I am also interested in the effect of mutations, on the process of speciation, local adaptation and genetic conflicts. On an empirical side, I have worked on a variety of systems (mice, mosquitoes, snails, artemia, bacteria, yeast, microsporidia maize).

Research interests by keywords
adaptation, local adaptation, migration, speciation, chromosomes, clines, sex, parthenogenesis, meiosis, recombination, epistasis, dominance, mutations, resistance, duplications, modifiers, mating systems, sexual conflicts, parasites, microbiota.

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Brief CV

Research director CNRS
HDR (2007)
Ph.D Evolutionary Biology (1998)
ERC "starting grant" (2007)
Theodosius Dobzhansky Prize (Society for the Study of Evolution), 2000
Young Investigator Prize (American Society of Naturalists), 2000

 profile on ResearchGate, GoogleScholar


alt Editor 2012 - 2015
alt Associate editor 2005 - 2008
alt Associate editor 2004 - 2011
alt Associate editor 2003 - 2007



Interested to join our lab? internship opportunities 2016-2017

The genomics of contagious of asexuality in Artemia parthenogenetica [supervision Christoph Haag and Thomas Lenormand]
The analysis of a huge crossing experiment combined with NGS data to uncover the mysteries of the genetics of asexuality. Possibly combined with population genetics theory.


Selected publications by topics

Adaptation and mutation effects

Bourguet, D., T. Lenormand, T. Guillemaud, V. Marcel, D. Fournier, and M. Raymond. 1997. Variation of dominance of newly arisen adaptive genes. Genetics 147:1225-1234.

Chevin L.-M., G. Martin, T. Lenormand. 2010. Fisher’s model and the genomics of adaptation: restricted pleiotropy, heterogeneous mutation and parallel evolution. Evolution 64: 3213-3231 PDF

Gallet R., Latour Y., Bradley H., and T. Lenormand. 2014. The dynamics of niche evolution upon abrupt environmental change. Evolution 68:1257-1269

NEW Jasmin J.-N., Lenormand T. 2016. Accelerating mutational load is not due to synergistic epistasis or mutator alleles in mutation accumulation lines of yeast. Genetics DOI 115.182774

Labbé, P., Sidos, N., Raymond, M., and Lenormand, T., 2009. Resistance Gene Replacement in the Mosquito Culex Pipiens: Fitness Estimation from Long Term Cline Series. Genetics 182:303-312 PDF

Lenormand, T., D. Roze, F. Rousset. 2009. Stochasticity in evolution. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 24: 157-165. PDF

NEW Lenormand T, Chevin LMC, Bataillon T. In press. Parallel evolution : what does it (not) tell us and why is it (still) interesting? [Book chapter, in Chance in Evolution Ramsey G & C Pence Eds, Univ. Chicago Press]. 

Manna F., Martin G., and T. Lenormand. 2011. Fitness landscape: an alternative theory for the dominance of mutations. Genetics 189:923-937. PDF.

Manna F., Gallet R., Martin G., and T. Lenormand. 2012. The high throughput yeast deletion fitness data and the theories of dominance. JEB, 25:892-903. PDF.

Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2006. A general multivariate extension of Fisher's geometrical model and the distribution of mutation fitness effects across species. Evolution 60:893-907. Awarded Fisher Prize 2007, Best PhD paper published in Evolution in 2006. PDF

Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2006. The fitness effect of mutations in stressful environments: a survey in the light of fitness landscape models. Evolution 60:2413-2427. PDF

Martin, G., S.F. Elena and T. Lenormand. 2007. Distributions of epistasis in microbes fit predictions from a fitness landscape model. Nature Genetics 39:555-560. PDF

Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2008. The distribution of beneficial and fixed mutation fitness effects close to an optimum. Genetics. 179: 907-916. PDF

NEW Martin, G., and T. Lenormand. 2015. The fitness effect of mutations across environments: Fisher's geometric model with multiple optima. Evolution 69:1433-1447

Local adaptation

Alberto F., S. N. Aitken, R. Alía, S. C. González-Martínez, H. Hänninen, A. Kremer, F. Lefèvre, T. Lenormand, S. Yeaman, R. Whetten, O. Savolainen. 2013. Potential for evolutionary responses to climate change - evidence from tree populations. Global Change Biology doi: 10.1111/gcb.12181.

Debarre F., Lenormand, T. and Gandon S. Evolutionary epidemiology of drug-resistance in space. 2009. PLoS Comp. Biol. 5:e1000337. PDF

Debarre F.,and T. Lenormand. 2011.Distance-limited dispersal promotes coexistence at habitat boundaries: reconsidering the competitive exclusion principle. Ecology Letters, 14: 260-266 PDF

Epinat, G., and T. Lenormand. 2009. The evolution of assortative mating and selfing with in- and outbreeding depression. Evolution. 63: 2047-2060. PDF

NEW Gallet R, Latour Y, Hughes B S, Lenormand T. 2014. The dynamics of niche evolution upon abrupt environmental change. Evolution 68: 1257-1269

Guillemaud, T., T. Lenormand, D. Bourguet, C. Chevillon, N. Pasteur, and M. Raymond. 1998. Evolution of resistance in Culex pipiens: Allele replacement and changing environment. Evolution 52:443-453.

Labbe, P., T. Lenormand, and M. Raymond. 2005. On the worldwide spread of an insecticide resistance gene: a role for local selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 18:1471-1484. PDF

Lenormand, T. 2002. Gene flow and the limits to natural selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17:183-189. PDF

Lenormand, T., D. Bourguet, T. Guillemaud, and M. Raymond. 1999. Tracking the evolution of insecticide resistance in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Nature 400:861-864. PDF

Lenormand, T., and M. Raymond. 1998. Resistance management: the stable zone strategy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 265:1985-1990. PDF

Lenormand, T., and M. Raymond. 2000. Analysis of clines with variable selection and variable migration. American Naturalist 155:70-82. PDF

Gene duplication evolution

Labbe, P., A. Berthomieu, C. Berticat, H. Alout, M. Raymond, T. Lenormand, and M. Weill. 2007. Independent duplications of the acetylcholinesterase gene conferring insecticide resistance in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24:1056-1067. PDF

Lenormand, T., T. Guillemaud, D. Bourguet, and M. Raymond. 1998. Appearance and sweep of a gene duplication: Adaptive response and potential for new functions in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Evolution 52:1705-1712. PDF

Labbé P., Milesi P., Yébakima A., Weill M., and T. Lenormand. 2014. Gene dosage effects on fitness in recent adaptive duplications : ace-1 in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Evolution 68: 2092-2101

Labbe, P., C. Berticat, A. Berthomieu, S. Unal, C. Bernard, M. Weill and T. Lenormand. 2007. Forty years of erratic insecticide resistance evolution in the mosquito Culex pipiens. PLoS Genetics, 3:e205. PDF

Sex, recombination, life cycles

NEW  Lenormand T, Engelstädter J, Johnston SE, Wijnker E, Haag CR. 2016. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B, in revision.
         also here on BiorXiv 

Lenormand, T. 2003. The evolution of sex dimorphism in recombination. Genetics 163:811-822. PDF

Lenormand, T., and S. P. Otto. 2000. The evolution of recombination in a heterogeneous environment. Genetics 156:423-438. PDF

Lenormand, T., and J. Dutheil. 2005. Recombination difference between sexes: A role for haploid selection. PLoS Biology 3:396-403. PDF

Lenormand T, Roze D, Cheptou P-O, Maurice S. 2010. L'évolution du sexe: un carrefour pour la biologie évolutive. in Biologie évolutive. M. Raymond, F. Thomas, T. Lefèvre, Eds. DeBoeck.
Everything you ever wanted to know about sex, but in French

NEW  Lievens EJP, Henriques GJB, Michalakis Y, Lenormand T. 2016. Maladaptive sex ratio adjustment in the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Curr Biol. 26:1463–1467

Martin, G., S. P. Otto, and T. Lenormand. 2006. Selection for recombination in structured populations. Genetics 172:593-609. PDF

NEW Nougué O, Flaven E, Jabbour-Zahab R, Rode N O, Dubois M-P, Lenormand T. 2015. Characterization of nine new polymorphic microsatellite markers in Artemia parthenogenetica. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 58, 59-63

NEW Nougué O, Rode NO, Jabbour Zahab R, Ségard A, Chevin LMC, Haag C, Lenormand T. 2015. Automixis in Artemia: solving a century old controversy. J. Evol. Biol. 28:2337-2348

Otto, S. P., and T. Lenormand. 2002. Resolving the paradox of sex and recombination. Nature Reviews Genetics 3:252-261. PDF

NEW Rescan M, Lenormand T, Roze D. 2016. Interaction between genetic and ecological effects on the evolution of life cycles. American Naturalist 187: 19-34

Roze, D., and T. Lenormand. 2005. Self-fertilization and the evolution of recombination. Genetics 170:841-857. PDF

Henry, P. Y., L. Vimond, T. Lenormand, and P. Jarne. 2006. Is delayed selfing adjusted to chemical cues of density in the freshwater snail Physa acuta? Oikos 112:448-455. PDF

NEW Svendsen N, Reisser CMO, Dukić M, Thuillier V, Ségard A, Liautard-Haag C, Fasel D, Hürlimann E, Lenormand T, Galimov Y and Haag CR. 2015. Uncovering Cryptic Asexuality in Daphnia magna by RAD-Sequencing. Genetics 201:1143-1155


Bierne, N., T. Lenormand, F. Bonhomme, and P. David. 2002. Deleterious mutations in a hybrid zone: can mutational load decrease the barrier to gene flow? Genetical Research 80:197-204. PDF

Chevin, L.-M., Decorzent G., T. Lenormand. 2014. Niche dimensionality and the genetics of ecological speciation. Evolution 68:1244-1256

Fel-Clair, F., J. Catalan, T. Lenormand, and J. Britton-Davidian. 1998. Centromeric incompatibilities in the hybrid zone between house mouse subspecies from Denmark: Evidence from patterns of NOR activity. Evolution 52:592-603.

Fel-Clair, F., T. Lenormand, J. Catalan, J. Grobert, A. Orth, P. Boursot, M. C. Viroux, and J. BrittonDavidian. 1996. Genomic incompatibilities in the hybrid zone between house mice in Denmark: Evidence from steep and non-coincident chromosomal clines for Robertsonian fusions. Genetical Research 67:123-134.

Ganem, G, C. Litel, and T. Lenormand. 2008. Variation in mate preference across a house mouse hybrid zone. Heredity. 6:594-601 PDF

Gay, L., P. Crochet, D. Bell, and T. Lenormand. 2008. Comparing genetic and phenotypic clines in hybrid zones: a window on tension zone models. Evolution 62: 2789-2806 PDF

Lenormand T. 2012. From local adaptation to speciation: specialization and reinforcement. International Journal of Ecology. Ecological speciation (special issue) article ID 508458. PDF

Lenormand, T., F. FelClair, K. Manolakou, P. Alibert, and J. BrittonDavidian. 1997. Chromosomal transmission bias in laboratory hybrids between wild strains of the two European subspecies of house mice. Genetics 147:1279-1287. PDF


Billiard, S., and T. Lenormand. 2005. Evolution of migration under kin selection and local adaptation. Evolution 59:13-23. PDF

Lenormand, T., T. Guillemaud, D. Bourguet, and M. Raymond. 1998. Evaluating gene flow using selected markers: A case study. Genetics 149:1383-1392. PDF

Rieux A, Lenormand T., Carlier J., de Lapeyre de Bellaire L., Ravigne V. 2013 Using neutral cline decay to estimate contemporary dispersal: a generic tool and its application to a major crop pathogen. Ecology Letters 16 :721-730

Genetic conflicts

Autran D, Baroux C, Raissig MT, Lenormand T, Wittig M, Grob S, Steimer A, Barann M, Klostermeir UC, Leblanc O, Vielle-Calzada JP, Rosenstiel P, Grimanelli D, Grossniklaus U. 2011. Maternal epigenetic pathways control parental contributions to Arabidopsisearly embryogenesis. Cell 145: 707-719. PDF

Cailleau A., P.-O. Cheptou, T. Lenormand. 2010. Ploidy and the evolution of endosperm of flowering plants. Genetics 184:439-453. PDF

NEW  Fyon F., Cailleau A., Lenormand T. 2015. Enhancer runaway and the Evolution of diploid gene expression. PLoS Genet. DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005665.

Rode N., Charmantier A., Lenormand T. 2011. Male-female coevolution in the wild : evidence from a time series inArtemia franciscana. Evolution 65:2881-2892. PDF
On the web See a great summary by Carl Zimmer
here or in Wired here.

Biotic interactions

NEW  Ehlers B., David P., Damgaard C.F., Lenormand T. 2016. Competitor relatedness, indirect soil effects, and plant co-existence. Journal of Ecology 104: 1134-1135

Gallet, R., T. Lenormand and I.-N. Wang, 2012 Phenotypic stochasticity prevents lytic bacteriophage population from extinction during bacterial stationary phase. Evolution 66: 3485-3494. PDF

NEW  Nougué O, Gallet R, Chevin LMC, Lenormand T. 2015. Niche Limits of Symbiotic Gut Microbiota Constrain the Salinity Tolerance of Brine Shrimp. American Naturalist 186:390-403
Microbiota impact the niche and an extended definition of realized niches

Rode N.O., Lievens EJP, Flaven E., Segard A., Jabbour-Zahab R., Sanchez M, Lenormand T. 2013. Why join groups? Lessons from parasite-manipulated Artemia. Ecology Letters 16:493-501. PDF
On the web:
Parasites Make Their Hosts Sociable So They Get Eaten. Ed Yong's National Geographic Blog

Rode N.O., Landes J., Lievens E.J.P., Flaven E., Segard A., Jabbour-Zahab R., Michalakis Y., Agnew P., Vivares C., Lenormand T. 2013. Cytological, molecular and life cycle characterization of Anostracospora rigaudi n. g., n. sp. and Enterocytospora artemiae n. g., n. sp., two new microsporidian parasites infecting gut tissues of the brine shrimp Artemia. Parasitology 140:1168-1185

Sánchez M.I., N.O. Rode, E. Flaven, S. Redón, F. Amat, G.P. Vasileva, T. Lenormand. 2012. Differential susceptibility to parasites of invasive and native species of Artemia living in sympatry: consequences for the invasion ofA. franciscana in the Mediterranean Region. Biological Invasion, 14:1819-1829. PDF

NEW  Sanchez M., Pons I., Martinez-Haro M., Taggart M.A., Lenormand T., Green A. 2016. When parasites are good for health: cestode parasitism increases resistance to arsenic in brine shrimps. PLoS Pathogens DOI e1005459

Vasileva G.P., Redon S., Amat F., Nikolov P.N., Sanchez M., Lenormand T., Georgiev B.B. 2009 Records of cysticercoids of Fimbriarioides tadornae (Maksimova, 1976) and Branchiopodataenia gvozdevi (Maksimova, 1988) (Cyclophyllidea, Hymenolepididae) from brine shrimps at the Mediterraneancoasts of Spain and France, with a key to cestodes from Artemia spp. from the Western Mediterranean. Acta Parasitologica 54: 143-150. PDF


Gallet R., Cooper T., Elena S.F., T. Lenormand. 2012. Measuring selection coefficients below 10-3 : method, questions and prospects. Genetics, 190:175-186. PDF
Over 150 millions phenotypes scored, one of the most precise measure of selection ever made and the questions it raises

Gimenez O., R. Covas, C. Brown, M. Anderson, M. Bomberger Brown, and T. Lenormand. 2006. Nonparametric estimation of natural selection on a quantitative trait using capture-mark-recapture data. Evolution 60:460-466. PDF

Gimenez O., Gregoire A., Lenormand T. 2009. Estimating and visualizing fitness surfaces using mark-recapture data. Evolution. 63: 3097-3105.

NEW Lenormand T, Rode NO, Chevin LMC, Rousset F. In press. Valeur sélective: définitions, enjeux et mesures. in Biologie évolutive 2nd edition. M. Raymond, F. Thomas, T. Lefèvre, Eds. DeBoeck.
Everything you ever wanted to know about fitness, but in French




Download CFit : a stand-alone package to fit clines


Fyon F., Cailleau A., Lenormand T. 2015. Enhancer runaway and the Evolution of diploid gene expression. PLoS Genet. DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005665 Normal 0 21 false false false FR X-NONE X-NONE