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Département Dynamique et Gouvernance des systèmes écologiques

RECHERCHE Dynamique et Gouvernance des Systèmes Ecologiques Dynamique des Paysages et de la Biodiversité

Ana RODRIGUES

altResearcher (Chargée de recherche), CNRS

Team leader

CEFE/CNRS UMR5175
Campus du CNRS
1919, route de Mende
34293 Montpellier 5

ph: +33 4 67 61 33 22
fax: +33 4 67 61 33 36

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http://www.researcherid.com/rid/A-5914-2009

 

Key research interests

My research interests lie at the interface between ecology and biological conservation, with the study of spatial biodiversity patterns as the unifying theme. This research focuses on two main components:

1. Investigating the implications of biodiversity patterns for conservation. Given that biodiversity is not evenly distributed, and neither are threatening processes such as habitat loss or overexploitation, it is fundamental to be strategic in the spatial placement of conservation efforts such as protected areas. I work on the development of methods for the selection of priority areas for conservation, and investigate how the spatial distribution of conservation efforts and threatening activities affects biodiversity, focussing on large spatial scales. I am also interested on the historical human footprint on today’s macroecological patterns, how it affects our perception of what natural ecosystems look like, and of their future conservation options.

2. Understanding the ecological and evolutionary processes that underpin biodiversity patterns. We have little understanding of the assembly rules driving species’ spatial organisation, which hampers our capacity to predict how biodiversity responds to change such as habitat transformation, climate change and species introductions. I am working on the development of spatially explicit, process-based, models that can predict biodiversity patterns across spatial and temporal scales.

Research opportunities

Funded studentships and postdoctoral positions will be advertised here as they become available.

I am keen to hear at any time from prospective students or postdocs with their own funding, or who have opportunities to apply for such funding, who would like to conduct projects in my areas of interest. I am particularly interested in hearing from individuals with a solid mathematical and/or programming background.

Bio

2009-present: Researcher (Chargé de Recherche 1). Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Montpellier, France.

2008: Postdoctoral Research Fellow. Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK.

2006-2007: Marie Curie Research Fellow. Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK.

2002-2005: Research Fellow. Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, USA.

1998-2002: PhD in Conservation Biology. Biodiversity & Macroecology Group, Department of Animal & Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, U.K.

1997: Teaching Assistant. Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, Portugal.

1996-1998: MSc in Mathematics Applied to the Biological Sciences. Institute of Agronomy, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal (two-year degree).

1991-1996: First degree in Biology. Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Portugal (five-year degree).


Current projects

2011-present: ANR MORSE (Management of Ocean Resources under Shifting Expectations: bringing the historical perspective into marine mammal conservation), scientific coordinator.

2012-present: CESAB PELAGIC (Prioritizing ecologically significant and globally important areas for marine mammal conservation (PELAGIC): synthesizing the best available knowledge to inform management and policy). Scientific coordinator: David Kaplan (IRD).


Current students

2013: Laureline Chabran. Second year Master student (extra-curricular intership). Master BIODIV - Conservation de la Biodiversité, Université de Montpellier 2. Project: The human impact on seal populations in the Southern Oceans. Co-supervisor: Sophie Monsarrat.

2013: Christel Vidaller. Second year Master student (extra-curricular intership). Master Histoire Philosophie et Didactiques des Sciences, Université de Montpellier 2 (extra-curricular internship, 5 months). Project: The impact of human exploitation on the global distribution, abundance and behaviour of the Mediterranean monk seal, Monachus monachus. Co-supervisor: Sophie Monsarrat.

2013: Anne-Sophie Bonnet-Lebrun. Second year Master student. Master Ecologie Biodiversité, Evolution Paris, Ecole Normale Supérieure (second year Master student). Project: The temporal dynamics of phylogenetic tree shape in neutral community models. Co-supervisor: Andrea Manica, University of Cambridge.

2012-present: Sophie Monsarrat. PhD student. Université de Montpellier 2. Project: Human impact on the global patterns of marine mammals distribution and abundance. Co-supervisor: Francesco Bonadonna.

2011-present: Marius Somveille. PhD student. University of Cambridge. Project: The ecology and evolution of bird migration. Main supervisor: Andrea Manica, University of Cambridge.


Past students

2013: Laura Pinillos. Second year Master student. Master Ecologie Biodiversité, Evolution Paris. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (second year Master student). Project: The shifting baseline of the diversity and abundance of marine mammals in South America and the Caribbean. Co-supervisor: Sophie Monsarrat.

2012: Fanny Gascuel. Second year Master student. Master Ecologie Biodiversité, Evolution Paris, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon / Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6). Project: Modelling biodiversity patterns on island systems. Co-supervisor: Fabien Laroche.

2012: Isabelle Maréchaux. Second year Master student. Master Ecologie Biodiversité, Evolution Paris, ingénieure-élève du Corps des Ponts, des Eaux et des Forêts. Project: Spatially-explicit metrics of biodiversity value. Co-supervisor: Anne Charpentier.

2011: Marius Somveille. Second year Master student. Master Ecologie Biodiversité, Evolution Paris. Project: The macroecology of bird migration. Co-supervisor: Andrea Manica, University of Cambridge.

2010: Sandra Nussbaum. Second year Master student. Master Ecologie Biodiversité, Evolution Paris; Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris. Project: Effect of local marine mammal extinctions on global biodiversity patterns.

2010: Soizic Le Saout. Second year Master student. Master Ecologie Biodiversité, Evolution Paris. AgroParisTech, Paris. Project: The role of protected areas in preventing global species extinctions.

2008: Ben Crowter. Part 2 Zoology (third year) undergraduate student. Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge. Project: Quantifying the global patterns of amphibian taxonomic expertise. Co-supervised with Andrea Manica, University of Cambridge.

2008: Claudia Gray. Part 2 Zoology (third year) undergraduate student. Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge. Project: Factors affecting the global distribution of amphibian taxonomists and implications for conservation. Co-supervised with Andrea Manica, University of Cambridge.

2007: Rachael Marshall. Part 2 Zoology (third year) undergraduate student. Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge. Project: Sociality and threat status in birds. Co-supervised with Andrea Manica, University of Cambridge.

2007: Rhian Jones. Part 2 Zoology (third year) undergraduate student. Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge. Project: On the factors influencing the popularity of birds. Co-supervised with Andrew Balmford, University of Cambridge.

 

Publications

61. Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805. PDF Suppl.

60. Somveille, M., Manica, A., Butchart, S.H.M., Rodrigues A.S.L. (2013) Mapping Global Diversity Patterns for Migratory Birds. PLoS ONE 8: e70907. LINK. PDF

59. Knight, A.T., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Strange, N., Tew, T., Wilson, K.A. (2013) Designing effective solutions to conservation planning problems. In – Key Topics in Conservation Biology - 2nd Edition. D.W. Macdonald & K.J. Willies (Eds.), pp 362-383. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester.

58.  Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Hotspots. In – Encyclopedia of Biodiversity - 2nd Edition, vol 4. S.A. Levin (Ed.), p. 127-136. Academic Press, New York, NY. PDF

57.  Rolland, J., Cadotte, M.W., Davies, J., Devictor, V., Lavergne, S., Mouquet, N., Pavoine, S., Rodrigues, A., Thuiller, W., Turcati, L., Winter, M., Zupan, L., Jabot, F. & Morlon, H. (2012) Using phylogenies in conservation: new perspectives. Biology Letters 8: 692-694. PDF

56.  Mouquet, N., Devictor, V. Meynard, C.N., Munoz, F., Bersier, L.-F., Chave, J., Couteron, P., Dalecky, A., Fontaine, C., Gravel, D., Hardy, O.J., Jabot, F., Lavergne, S., Leibold, M., Mouillot, D., Münkemüller, T., Pavoine, S., Prinzing, A., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Rohr, R.P., Thébault, E., Thuiller, W. (2012). Ecophylogenetics: advances and perspectives. Biological Reviews 87: 769–785. PDF

55.  Strassburg, B.B.N., Rodrigues A.S.L., Gusti, M., Balmford, A., Fritz, S., Obersteiner, M., Turner, R.K., Brooks T.M. (2012) Impacts of incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation on global species extinctions. Nature Climate Change. doi:10.1038/nclimate1375. PDF

54. Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2011) Species as surrogates in conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26: 625-626. PDF

53. Rondinini, C., Boitani, L., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Brooks, T.M., Pressey, R.L., Visconti, P., Baillie, J.E.M., Baisero, D., Crooks, K.R., Di Marco, M., Redford, K.H., Andelman, S.A., Cabeza, M., Hoffmann, M., Maiorano, L., Stuart, S.N., Wilson, K.A. (2011) Reconciling global mammal prioritisation schemes into a strategy. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 1579: 2722 -2728. PDF

52. Rodrigues, A.S.L., Grenyer, R., Baillie, J.E.M., Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P., Gittlemann, J.L., Hoffmann, M., Safi, K., Schipper, J., Stuart, N.S., Brooks, T.M. (2011) Complete, accurate, mammalian phylogenies aid conservation planning, but not much. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 1579: 2652-2660. PDF

51. Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Lamoreux, J., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Schipper, J., & Stuart, S.N. (2011) The changing fates of the world's mammals. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 1579: 2598-2610. PDF

50. Rondinini, C., Rodrigues, A.S.L. & Boitani, L. (2011) The key elements of a comprehensive global mammal conservation strategy. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 1579: 2591-2597. PDF

49. Rodrigues, A.S.L.(2011) Improving coarse species distribution data for conservation planning in biodiversity-rich, data-poor, regions: no easy shortcuts. Animal Conservation 14, 108-110. PDF

48. Vimal, R., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Mathevet, R., Thompson, J.D. (2011) The sensitivity of gap analysis to conservation targets. Biodiversity and Conservation 20, 531-543. PDF

47. Jones, J., Collen, B., Atkinson, G., Baxter, P., Bubb, P., Illian, J., Katzner, T., Keane, A., Loh, J., McDonald-Madden, E., Nicholson, E., Pereira, H.M., Possingham, H.P., Pullin, A., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Ruiz-Gutierrez, V., Sommerville, M. & Milner-Gulland, E. (2011) The why, what, and how of global biodiversity indicators beyond the 2010 target. Conservation Biology 25, 450-457. PDF

46. Balmford, A., Fisher, B. Green, R.E., Naidoo, R., Strassburg, B., Turner, R.K., Rodrigues A.S.L. (2011). Bringing ecosystem services into the real world: an operational framework for assessing the economic consequences of losing wild nature. Environmental and Resource Economics 48, 161-175. PDF

45. Rodrigues A.S.L., Gray C.L., Crowter B.J., Ewers R.M., Stuart S.N., Whitten T., Manica A. (2010). A global assessment of amphibian taxonomic effort and expertise. BioScience 60, 798-806. PDF

44. Hoffmann, M., Hilton-Taylor, C., Angulo, A., Bohm, M., Brooks, T.M., Butchart, S.H.M., Carpenter, K.E., Chanson, J., Collen, B., Cox, N.A., Darwall, W.R.T., Dulvy, N.K., Harrison, L.R., Katariya, V., Pollock, C.M., Quader, S., Richman, N.I., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Tognelli, M.F., et al. (2010) The impact of conservation on the status of the world's vertebrates. Science 330 1503-1509. PDF

43. Brooks T.M., Mittermeier R.A., da Fonseca G.A.B., Gerlach J., Hoffmann M., Lamoreux J.F., Mittermeier C.G., Pilgrim J.D. & Rodrigues A.S.L. (2010) Global biodiversity conservation priorities: an expanded review. In – A Handbook of Environmental Management. J. Lovett J, D. Ockwell (Eds.) pp 8-29, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Cheltenham, UK. PDF

42. Strassburg, B. B. N., Kelly, A., Balmford, A., Davies, R. G., Gibbs, H. K., Lovett, A., Miles, L., Orme, C. D. L., Price, J., Turner, R. K., & Rodrigues, A. S. L. (2010). Global congruence of carbon storage and biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems. Conservation Letters 3, 98-105. PDF

41. Rodrigues, A. S. L., Ewers, R. M., Parry, L., Souza Jr., C., & Verissimo, A. (2009) Boom-and-bust development patterns across the Amazon deforestation frontier. Science 324, 1435-1437. PDF. [Faculty of 1000: Recommended]

40. Balmford, A., Carey, P., Kapos, V., Manica, A., Rodrigues, A. S. L., Scharlemann, J. P., & Green, R. E (2009) Capturing the many dimensions of threat: comment on Salafsky et al. Conservation Biology 23, 482-487. PDF

39. Schipper, J., Chanson, J. S., Chiozza, F., Cox, N. A., Hoffmann, M., Katariya, V., Lamoreux, J., Rodrigues, A. S. L., Stuart, S. N., Temple, H. J., Baillie, J., Boitani, L., Lacher, T. E., Mittermeier, R. A., Smith, A. T., et al. (2008). The status of the world's land and marine mammals: diversity, threat, and knowledge. Science 322, 225-230. PDF [Faculty of 1000: Must Read]

38. Hoffmann M., Brooks T.M., Fonseca G.A.B., Gascon C., Hawkins A.F.A., James R.E., Langhammer P., Mittermeier R.A., Pilgrim J.D., Rodrigues A.S.L. & Silva J.M.C. (2008) Conservation planning and the IUCN Red List. Endangered Species Research 6, 113-125. PDF

37. Ewers R.M. & Rodrigues A.S.L. (2008) Estimates of reserve effectiveness are confounded by leakage. Trends in Ecology & Evolution23, 113-116. PDF

36. Rodrigues A.S.L. & Brooks T.M. (2007) Shortcuts for biodiversity conservation planning: the effectiveness of surrogates. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 38, 713-737. PDF

35. Rodrigues A.S.L.(2007) Effective global conservation strategies. Nature 450, E19. PDF

34. Phalan B., Rodrigues A.S.L., Balmford A., Green R.E. & Ewers R.M. (2007) Comment on "Resource-Conserving Agriculture Increases Yields in Developing Countries". Environmental Science & Technology 41, 1054 - 1055. PDF

33. Rodrigues A.S.L.(2006) Are global conservation efforts successful? Science 313, 1051-1052. PDF

32. Brooks T.M., Mittermeier R.A., da Fonseca G.A.B., Gerlach J., Hoffmann M., Lamoreux J.F., Mittermeier C.G., Pilgrim J.D. & Rodrigues A.S.L. (2006) Global biodiversity conservation priorities. Science 313, 58-61. PDF

31. Ewers R.M. & Rodrigues A.S.L. (2006) Speaking different languages on biodiversity. Nature 443, 506. PDF

30. Rodrigues A.S.L., Pilgrim J.D., Lamoreux J.F., Hoffmann M. & Brooks T.M. (2006) The value of the IUCN Red List for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21, 71-6. PDF

29. Brooks T.M., Mittermeier R.A., da Fonseca G.A.B., Gerlach J., Hoffmann M., Lamoreux J.F., Mittermeier C.G., Pilgrim J.D. & Rodrigues A.S.L. (2006) On purpose in conservation - response. Science 314, 53-54. PDF

28. Evans K., Rodrigues A., Chown S. & Gaston K. (2006) Protected areas and regional avian species richness in South Africa. Biology Letters 2, 184-188. PDF

27. Brandon K., Gorenflo L.J., Rodrigues A.S.L. & Waller R.W. (2005) Reconciling biodiversity conservation, people, protected areas, and agricultural suitability in Mexico.  World Development 33, 1403-1418. PDF

26. Ricketts T.H., Dinerstein E., Boucher T., Brooks T.M., Butchart S.H.M., Hoffmann M., Lamoreux J.F., Morrison J., Parr M., Pilgrim J.D., Rodrigues A.S.L., Sechrest W., Wallace G.E., Berlin K., Bielby J., Burgess N.D., Church D.R., Cox N., Knox D., Loucks C., Luck G.W., Master L.L., Moore R., Naidoo R., Ridgely R., Schatz G.E., Shire G., Strand H., Wettengel W. & Wikramanayake E. (2005) Pinpointing and preventing imminent extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 18497–18501. PDF [Faculty of 1000: Recommended]

25. Mace, G., Masundire, H., Baillie, J., (Coordinating Lead Authors), Ricketts, T., Brooks, T., Hoffmann, M., Stuart, S., Balmford, A., Purvis, A., Reyers, B., Wang, J., Revenga, C., Kennedy, E., Naeem, S., Alkemade, R., Allnutt, T., Bakarr, M., Bond, W., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Fonseca, G., Hilton-Taylor, C., Loucks, C., Rodrigues, A., Sechrest, W., Stattersfield, A., Rensburg, B.J.v., Whiteman, C., (Lead Authors), Abell, R., Cokeliss, Z., Lamoreux, J., Pereira, H.M., Thonell, J., Williams, P., (Contributing Authors), Ceballos, G., Lavorel, S., Orians, G., Pacala, S. (Review Editors) (2005) Chapter 4: Biodiversity. In – Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends, Volume 1, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, pp. 77-122. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. PDF

24. Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Young, B.E., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Fischman, D.L. & Waller, R.W. (2005) The past and future of extant amphibians – response. Science 308, 50. PDF

23. Rodrigues, A.S.L., Brooks, T.M. & Gaston, K.J. (2005) Integrating phylogenetic diversity in the selection of priority areas for conservation: does it make a difference?In – Phylogeny and Conservation, A. Purvis, J.L. Gittleman, T.M. Brooks (Eds.) pp. 101-119, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. PDF

22. Stuart S.N., Chanson J.S., Cox N.A., Young B.E., Rodrigues A.S.L., Fischman D.L. & Waller R.W. (2005) Response to Comment on "Status and Trends of Amphibian Declines and Extinctions Worldwide". Science 309, 1999. PDF

21. Brooks, T.M., Pilgrim, J.D., Rodrigues, A.S.L. & Fonseca G.A.B. (2005) Conservation status and geographic distribution of avian evolutionary history.In – Phylogeny and Conservation, A. Purvis, J.L. Gittleman, T.M. Brooks (Eds.) pp. 267-294, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. PDF

20. Rodrigues, A.S.L., Akcakaya, H.R., Andelman, S.J., Bakarr, M.I., Boitani, L., Brooks, T.M., Chanson, J.S., Fishpool, L.D.C., Fonseca, G.A.B., Gaston, K.J., Hoffmann, M., Marquet, P.A., Pilgrim, J.D., Pressey, R.L., Schipper, J., Sechrest, W., Stuart, S.N., Underhill, L.G., Waller, R.W., Watts, M.E.J. & Yan, X. (2004) Global gap analysis: Priority regions for expanding the global protected-area network. BioScience 54, 1092-1100. PDF

19. Brooks, T.M., Bakarr, M.I., Boucher, T., Fonseca, G.A.B., Hilton-Taylor, C., Hoekstra, J.M., Moritz, T., Olivier, S., Parrish, J., Pressey, R.L., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Sechrest, W., Stattersfield, A., Strahm, W. & Stuart, S.N. (2004) Coverage provided by the global protected-area system: Is it enough? BioScience 54, 1081-1091. PDF

18. Brooks, T., Fonseca, G.A.B. & Rodrigues, A.S.L.(2004) Species, data, and conservation planning. Conservation Biology 18, 1682-1688. PDF

17. Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Young, B.E., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Fischman, D.L. & Waller, R.W. (2004) Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science 306, 1783-1786. PDF

16. Rodrigues, A.S.L., Andelman, S.J., Bakarr, M.I., Boitani, L., Brooks, T.M., Cowling, R.M., Fishpool, L.D.C., Fonseca, G.A.B., Gaston, K.J., Hoffmann, M., Long, J.S., Marquet, P.A., Pilgrim, J.D., Pressey, R.L., Schipper, J., Sechrest, W., Stuart, S.N., Underhill, L.G., Waller, R.W., Watts, M.E.J., & Yan, X. (2004) Effectiveness of the global protected area network in representing species diversity. Nature 428, 640-643. PDF

15. Brooks, T.M., Fonseca G.A.B. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2004) Protected areas and species. Conservation Biology 18, 1-3. PDF

14. Chown S.L., van Rensburg B.J.v., Gaston K.J., Rodrigues A.S.L. & van Jaarsveld A.S. (2003) Energy, species richness, and human population size: conservation implications at a national scale. Ecological Applications 13, 1233-1241. PDF

13. Gaston, K.J. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2003) Reserve selection in regions with poor biological data. Conservation Biology 17, 188-195. PDF

12. Rodrigues, A.S.L. & Gaston, K.J. (2002) Optimisation in reserve selection procedures – why not? Biological Conservation 107, 123-129. PDF

11. Bonn, A., Rodrigues, A.S.L. & Gaston, K.J. (2002) Threatened and endemic species: are they good indicators of patterns of biodiversity? Ecology Letters 5, 733-741. PDF

10. Rodrigues, A.S.L. & Gaston, K.J. (2002) Rarity and conservation planning across geopolitical units. Conservation Biology 16, 674-682. PDF

9.  Rodrigues, A.S.L. & Gaston, K.J. (2002) Maximising phylogenetic diversity in the selection of networks of conservation areas. Biological Conservation 105, 103-111. PDF

8.  Chown, S.L., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Gremmen, N.J.M. & Gaston, K.J. (2001) World Heritage Status and conservation of Southern Ocean Islands. Conservation Biology 15, 550-557. PDF

7.  Rodrigues, A.S.L. & Gaston, K.J. (2001) How large do reserve networks need to be? Ecology Letters 4, 602-609. PDF

6.  Gaston, K.J., Rodrigues, A.S.L., van Rensburg, B.J., Koleff, P. & Chown, S.L. (2001) Complementary representation and ecological transition. Ecology Letters 4, 4-9. PDF

5.  Rodrigues, A.S.L., Gaston, K.J. & Gregory, R. (2000) Using presence/absence data to establish reserve selection procedures that are robust to temporal species turnover. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 267, 897-902. PDF

4.  Balmford, A., Gaston, K.J., Rodrigues, A.S.L. & James, A. (2000) Integrating costs of conservation into international priority setting. Conservation Biology 14, 597-605. PDF

3.  Rodrigues, A.S.L., Gregory, R. & Gaston, K.J. (2000) Robustness of reserve selection procedures under temporal species turnover. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 267, 49-55. PDF

2.  Rodrigues, A.S., Orestes Cerdeira, J. & Gaston, K. J. (2000) Flexibility, efficiency, and accountability: adapting reserve selection algorithms to more complex conservation problems. Ecography 23, 565-574. PDF

1.  Rodrigues, A.S.L., Tratt, R., Wheeler, B.D. & Gaston, K.J. (1999) The performance of existing networks of conservation areas in representing biodiversity. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 266, 1453-1460. PDF